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First  Edition,  4/0,  1899 
Second  Edition,  Revised,  8vo,  1901 
Second  Edition,  Reprinted,  1902 
Third  Edition,  1905 


THIS  book  is  neither  a  chronique  intime  nor  a  collection 
of  anecdotes  :  it  is  simply  an  endeavour  to  give  both 
in  letterpress  and  illustrations  a  brief  review  of  the  artists 
who  have  painted  under  the  Pre-Raphaelite  inspiration, 
and  of  the  work  which  they  have  done.  It  is  somewhat 
remarkable  that  though  ample  and  authoritative  histories 
of  the  English  Pre-Raphaelite  painters  have  been  pro- 
mised, and  though  scattered  notices,  critical  and  biogra- 
phical, have  been  published  from  time  to  time,  no  epitome 
has  been  written  to  set  forth  succinctly,  and  in  a  handy 
form,  the  essential  facts  of  the  inception  and  rise  of  the 
movement,  and  the  work  of  the  founders  and  followers  of 
the  school  as  a  whole.  Though  it  would  have  been 
impossible  in  the  space  available  to  attempt  a  complete 
and  elaborate  history  of  a  movement  so  vast  and  far- 
reaching,  the  writer's  aim  has  been  to  produce  a  book 
treating  the  great  artistic  crusade  historically  and  in  an 
unbiassed  spirit ;  and  even  in  so  short  a  work  an  attempt 
has  been  made  to  discriminate  the  qualifications  of  the 
different  workers,  and  to  show  the  high  aim  which  has 
underlain  and  the  brilliant  achievement  which  has  crowned 
their  strenuous  endeavours. 

The  space  in  such  a  volume  as  the  present  precluded 
all  thought  of  dealing  with  any  other  than  pictorial  art  : 
the  history  of  sculpture  and  the  decorative  arts  as  affected 
by  Pre-Raphaelite  influence — witnessed,  for  instance,  in 
the  labours  of  Morris  and  Woolner,  to  name  no  others — 
is  perforce  omitted.  Necessarily  omitted  is  also  all  allusion 


to  the  fact  that  many  of  the  artists  whose  work  is  treated 
of  here  are  not  only  painters  but  poets,  and  the  friends  of 
poets.  That  such  a  fact  is  of  high  importance  in  studying 
their  work  is  most  true,  but  the  adequate  consideration  of 
so  fascinating  a  feature  would  extend  this  volume  far 
beyond  its  due  limits.  But  the  reader  who  bears  in  mind 
that  Ford  Madox  Brown,  Dante  Gabriel  Rossetti,  Thomas 
Woolner,  James  Collinson,  Walter  Deverell,  Walter  Crane, 
J.  W.  Inchbold,  Sir  Noel  Paton,  and  William  Bell  Scott  are 
all  poets  of  varying  achievement,  and  who  remembers  that 
in  the  inner  history  of  the  movement  the  names,  inter  alia, 
of  Christina  Rossetti,  William  Morris,  Algernon  Charles 
Swinburne,  Coventry  Patmore,  Mathilde  Blind,  Philip 
Bourke  Marston,  and  T.  Gordon  Hake,  loom  large,  will 
see  more  clearly  the  aim  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  artists,  and 
will  comprehend  the  intimate  association  of  poetic  feeling 
and  expression  with  their  devotion  to  veracity  of  present- 

Reference  has  been  made,  as  far  as  was  possible,  in 
the  list  of  illustrations,  to  the  owners,  artists,  and  photo- 
graphers who  have  allowed  their  pictures  to  appear  in  this 
volume.  The  author  and  publishers  desire,  however,  to 
express  here  their  appreciation  of  the  kindness  and 
courtesy  they  have  almost  invariably  experienced,  and  to 
tender  their  cordial  thanks  for  the  permissions  for  repro- 
duction, without  which  no  adequate  representation  of  the 
Pre-Raphaelite  School  of  Painting  would  have  been 


IT  would  seem  to  be  evident  from  the  fact  that  a  new 
edition  of  this  volume  is  called  for,  that  public  interest 
in  the  great  artistic  crusade  that  marked  the  middle  of 
the  nineteenth  century  in  England  still  continues  keen  ; 
and  the  opportunity  has  been  taken  to  show  in  the 
illustrations  to  this  second  edition  an  even  more  complete 
and  representative  selection  of  the  work  of  the  artists  of 
that  date  who  were  affected  by  the  wave  of  Pre- 
Raphaelism.  Additional  pictures  by  the  Brethren  and 
their  direct  associates  are  included,  others  by  painters 
who  were  temporarily  under  their  influence  have  been 
added,  and  the  works  by  the  Scottish  painters  will  show 
in  a  very  interesting  way  that,  without  the  personal 
contact  or  direct  influence  of  the  originators  of  the  move- 
ment, there  was,  as  a  result  of  their  propaganda,  something 
"in  the  air"  at  that  date  to  which  young  and  sensitive 
artists  thrilled  responsive. 

That  the  influence  of  the  Brethren  and  their  tenets  is 
still  felt  among  painters  is  obvious  to  those  who  follow  the 
course  of  art  as  apparent  in  exhibitions,  in  magazines, 
and  in  book  illustrations ;  and,  accordingly,  among  the 
illustrations  to  this  new  edition  will  be  found  a  few,  at 
least,  of  the  most  typical  recent  manifestations  of  Pre- 
Raphaelism.  Some  of  these  pictures  which  it  was 
intended  to  include  have  been,  however,  unavoidably 
omitted,  owing  to  difficulties  of  various  kinds  which 
attended  their  reproduction. 


The  letterpress  has  been  carefully  revised,  completed, 
and  brought  up  to  date,  and  it  is  the  author's  hope  that, 
in  this  new  form,  this  volume  may  be  found  an  adequate 
epitome  of,  and  guide  to,  a  most  interesting  and  note- 
worthy phase  of  British  art. 



August   1901. 



PREFACE         .......  v 




MADOX   BROWN  ....  17 


HUNT  .......  25 


EVERETT   MILLAIS       .....  31 


GABRIEL   ROSSETTI      .....  39 

DEVERELL  ......  $2 

WILSON  .......  56 

PATON          .......  69 

WEBBE  .....  ',  .  75 



THE  STONE-BREAKER  .         .  .        .        •       14 

By  permission  of  James  Barrow ',  Esq. 

THE  DECEITFULNESS  OF  RICHES  .         .         .         .114 

By  permission  of  the  Artist. 

CORDELIA  (Photogravure  Plate)      .         .          Frontispiece 

From  a  photograph  by  F.  Hollyer. 

CHRIST  WASHING  PETER'S  FEET  .         .         .         .18 
From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 
British  Art. 


By  permission  of  Arthur  Kay,  Esq^J.P. 

WORK;*^— .  -      T~"       " T~        .        ~~7  .  .         2C 

From  the  painting  in  the    City  Art  Gallery, 


CHAUCER  AT  THE  COURT  OF  EDWARD  III  .         .      20 
From   the  painting  in  the    Sydney  Municipal 


ELIJAH  AND  THE  WIDOW'S  SON   .         .         .        .22 
From  the  painting  at  South  Kensington  Museum. 


By  permission  of  the  late  James  Pyke  Thompson, 



By  permission  of  W.  Graham  Robertson,  Esq. 
THE  BACKGAMMON  PLAYERS        .         .         .         .100 
By  permission  of  Lord  Battersea.       From   a 
photograph  by  F.  Hollyer. 




From  a  photograph  by  F.  Holly er. 

KING   COPHETUA   AND   THE    BEGGAR    MAID      .  .104 

From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 
British  Art. 

THE  MILL 104 

By  permission  of  the  late  Constanttne  lonides, 
Esq.   From  a  photograph  by  Caswall  Smith. 
LOVE  DISGUISED  AS  REASON        .         .        .        .106 

From  a  photograph  by  F.  Holly  er. 

THE  BLESSED  DAMOZEL       .        .  -  .        .106 

From  a  photograph  by  Caswall  Smith. 



THE  WORLD'S  GRATITUDE  '.        .        .        .        .78 
FAITHFUL  UNTO  DEATH       .         .         .         .         .78 
By  permission  of  Mrs  Burton. 



By  permission  of  the  Artist  and  the  Board  of 

Manufactures,  Edinburgh. 

MHAIRI  DHU       .        .        .        .        .        .         .118 

By  permission  of  Messrs.  James   Connell  & 

Sons,   Glasgow. 


From  the  painting  in  the  University  Galleries, 


From  the  painting  in  the   City  Art   Gallery, 




By  permission  of  C.  R.  Park,  Esq. 



THE  GOOD  SAMARITAN         .        .  .         .114 

By  permission  of  the  Artist 


EUROPA ,         .      94 

By  permission  of  the  Artist. 

By  permission  of  Somerset  Beaumont,  Esq. 

By  permission  of  the  Artist. 


VIEW  NEAR  HALE         .  *  .         .         .         .86 

By  permission  of  William  Coltart,  Esq. 


FLORA 112 

By  permission  of  William  Imrie,  Esq. 
"  Mercy  and  Truth  have  met  together ; 
Righteousness  and  Peace  have  kissed  each  other?     ,     112 

By  permission  of  the  Artist. 

SCENE  FROM  "TWELFTH  NIGHT"  (Act  ii.,  Sc.  4)  .       54 

By  permission  of  Mrs  A.  Steele  Roberts. 

THE  CURIOSITY  SHOP,  ROME        ....      88 

By  permission  of  John  Wordie,  Esq. 
THE  RECUSANT'S  CONCEALMENT  .         .         .         .88 
By  permission  of  Mrs  L.  Robertson 


PORTRAIT  OF  E.  ONSLOW  FORD,  Esq.,  R.A. .         .     118 
By  permission  of  the  Artist. 

ARTHUR  J.  GASKIN      f 

THE  ANNUNCIATION     .         .         .         .         .         .118 

By  permission  of  the  Artist. 


THE  BALLAD          .         .         .         .         .         .         .90 

By  permission  of  John  Henderson,  Esq. 



SILVER  AND  GOLD          .  • 

By  permission  of  H.  H.  Trist,  Esq. 
APRIL  LOVE        .  • 

By  permission  of  H.  Boddington,  Esq. 



From  the  painting  at  Keble  College ,  Oxford. 

From   the  painting  in  the  City  Art   Gallery, 


From   a  painting  in    the    City   Art    Gallery^ 


By  permission  of  Sir  A.  H.  Fairbairn,  Bart. 

By  permission  of  Mrs  Holt. 

By  permission  of  Sir  Cuthbert  Quilter  and  Messrs 

Graves  6°  Co. 

By  permission  of  the  late  James  Hall,  Esq. 

From  the  painting  in  the  Walker  Art  Gallery, 



From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 
British  Art. 



By  permission  of  William  Coltart,  Esq. 


By  permission  of  Viscount  Powerscourt,  K.P. 


G.    D.    LESLIE,    R.A.  PAGE 


By  permission  of  H.  H.  Trist,  Esq. 

}.  F.  LEWIS,  R.A. 

.      LlLIUM    AURATUM 92 

By  permission  of  Sir  Cuthbert  Quilter,  Bart. 


THE  LAST  DAY  IN  THE  OLD  HOME    .         .         .82 
From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 
British  Art. 



By  permission  of  Mrs  Croall. 


HOPE  COMFORTING  LOVE  IN  BONDAGE        .        .114 
By  permission  of  the  Artist. 

SIR  J.  E.  MILLAIS,  BART.,  P.R.A. 

LORENZO  AT  THE  HOUSE  OF  ISABELLA         .        .       10 
From  the  painting  in  the  Walker  Art  Gallery, 


From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 

British  Art. 
CHRIST  IN  THE  HOUSE  OF  His  PARENTS     .         .       32 

By  permission  of  Messrs  Ml  Queen  Bros. 
THE  DEPARTURE  OF  THE  CRUSADERS  .         .        .34 

By  permission  of  Mrs  C.  E.  Lees. 
SlR  ISUMBRAS  AT  THE  FORD        ....      34 
THE  ESCAPE  OF  A  HERETIC         .        .        .        .36 
By  permission  of  Sir  W.  H.  Houldsworth,  Bart., 


From  the  painting  in  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum, 


THE  HIGHLAND  LASSIE        .....       38 
By  permission  of  Henry  Willett,  Esq. 


SIR  J.  E.  MILLAIS,  BART.,  P.R.A.— continued.  PAGE 

MERCY — ST.  BARTHOLOMEW'S  DAY,  1572      .         .       38 
From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 

British  Art 

"And  with  his  foot  and  with  his  wing  feathers 

He  swept  the  spring  that  watered  my  heart's  drouth. 
Then  the  dark  ripples  spread  to  waving  hair; 
And  as  I  stooped,  her  own  lips  rising  there 
Bubbled  with  brimming  kisses  at  my  mouth."     .         .114 

— D.  G.  ROSSETTI. 
By  permission  of  the  Artist. 


By  permission  of  C.  W.  Mitchell,  Esq. 

LOVE'S  NOCTURNE        ....  .108 

Bv  permission  of  the  Artist. 


By  permission  of  James  Coats,  Esq. 
DAWN — LUTHER  AT  ERFURT        .         .         .  72 

By  permission  of  Robert  H.  Brechin,  Esq. 

* '  Whispering  Tongues  can  poison  truth,  \ 
And  to  be  wroth  with  one  we've  loved, 
Doth  work  like  poison  on  the  brain  "  .         ,88 

From  the  painting  at  the  Arts  Club,  by  permission 

of  the  Artist. 

MY  LADY  GREENSLEEVES      .        .        «        .        .114 

By  permission  of  the  Artist 


By  permission  of  the  Artist. 
T.  M.  ROOKE 

AHAB'S  COVETING          .         .         .         .         .  no 

By  permission  of  Lord  Batter  sea. 




By  permission  of  W.  R.  Afoss,  Esq.     From  a 
photograph  by  F.  Hollyer. 


From  a  photograph  by  Caswall  Smith. 
THE  DAY  DREAM  (Photogravure  Plate) .         .         .42 
By  permission  of  the  late  Constantine  lonides^ 


By  permission  of  Miss  Horniman.      From  a 
photograph  by  F.  Hollyer. 


By  permission  of  Sir  Cuthbert  Quitter,  Bart. 

From  a  photograph  by  Caswall  Smith. 
LA  DONNA  DELLA  FINESTRA        ....       46 
By  permission  of  W.  R.  Moss,  Esq.     From  a 

photograph  by  F.  Hollyer. 
THE  BELOVED  (First  version)        ....       48 

By  permission  of  W.  M.  Rossetti,  Esq. 


By  permission  of  Fairfax  Murray ',  Esq. 


By  permission  of  W.  M.  Rossetti,  Esq. 

-^MEDEA         ........      56 


MORGAN  LE  FAY          .        .         .        .         .         .60 

By  permission  of  the  Artist  and  of  E.  Meredith 
Cr6,sse>  Esq.  From  photographs  by  F.  Hollyer 


From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 
British  Art 



LOVE'S  BAUBLES  ...  .116 

From  the  painting  in  the  Walker  Art  Gallery ', 

THE  BOER  WAR,   1900         .  .         .     116 

By  permission  of  the  Artist 

JONAH  •      94 

From  the  painting  in  tlu  Chapel  of  the  Annunci- 
ation.    By  permission  of  the  Artist 

DAWN          .....  62 

By  permission  of  H.  Boddington,  Esq. 


Fom  a  photogaph  by  F.  Hollyer 
LOVE  IN  AUTUMN        ....  .64 

By  permission  of  W.  Coltart,  Esq. 


From   the  painting  in  the   City  Art  Gallery, 

VENUS    RISING    FROM    THE:  SEA         .  .  .  .       IO8 

By  permission  of  W.  Connal,  Esq. 

"UPON  A  DAY  CAME  SORROW  UNTO  ME"    .        .112 
HIS  ENCHANTED  GARDEN          .         .        .        .112 

By  permission  of  the  Artist 
G.  A.  STOREY,  A.R.A. 


By  permission  of  the  Artist 

"THE  GENTLE  Music  OF  A  BYEGONE  DAY"  no 

By  permission  of  J.  Dixon,  Esq. 

THE  RAMPARTS  OF  GOD'S  HOUSE         .         .         .110 
By  permission  of  W.  Imrie,  Esq. 


By  permission  of  W.  Graham  Robertson^  Esq, 



THE  CONVALESCENT    .  ...       90 

By  permission  of  Mr  Thomas  McLean 


From  the  painting  in  the  National  Gallery  of 

British  Art 
W.  J.  WEBBE 


By  permission  of  G.  H.  Tucker,  Esq. 

ASIA 66 

By  permission  of  Halsey  Ricardo,  Esq* 
THE  SQNG  OF  THE  NIGHTINGALE         ...       68 

By  permission  of  Dr  John  Todhunter 


From  a  photograph  by  Caswall  Smith 

Too  LATE 80 

By  permission  of  Andrew  Bain,  Esq. 






IT  was  in  the  year  1848  that  a  young  student  at  the 
Royal  Academy  antique  schools,  Dante  Gabriel  Rossetti 
by  name,  who  had  previously  studied  at  Gary's  Drawing 
Academy  (otherwise  Sass's),  impatient  of  the  somewhat 
tedious  routine  and  the  length  of  time  that  must  elapse 
before  he  could  pass  in  the  ordinary  course  of  events 
to  the  painting  school,  and,  it  may  well  be,  a  little 
contemptuous  of  the  instructors  into  whose  hands  he 
would  fall  when  he  reached  that  bourne,  wrote  to  an  older 
artist,  Ford  Madox  Brown,  asking  to  be  received  as  a 
pupil.  He  was  then  an  impetuous  youth,  full  of  ideas 
and  dreams,  and  ambitious  of  realising  them  on  canvas, 
seeking  to  learn  the  technique  of  his  art,  desirous  of 
passing  from  the  drudgery  of  the  drawing  school,  which 
wearied  and  seemed  to  fetter  him,  to  the  acquisition  of 
brushwork  and  the  power  to  use  colour ;  and  he  turned 
to  an  artist,  his  senior,  but  himself  a  young  man,  with 
whom  he  was  not  acquainted,  but  whose  cartoons  shown 
at  Westminster  Hall  in  1844  and  1845  had  produced  on 
him  a  deep  impression  by  reason  of  their  great  power 


and  originality,  an  impression  which  the  Parisina  and 
the  Execution  of  Mary  Queen  of  Scots  had  afterwards 
deepened  and  confirmed. 

In  the  letter  sent  to  Madox  Brown,  a  letter  memorable 
by  virtue  of  the  great  results  that  were  later  to  accrue 
from  it,  Rossetti  spoke  in  highly  laudatory  terms  of  the 
work  of  the  painter  whose  pupil  he  sought  to  be  (neither 
then  nor  later  did  he  mince  matters  or  measure  his  words 
in  allotting  either  praise  or  blame) ;  and  the  recipient, 
unaccustomed  to  such  praise,  and  half-suspicious  of  an 
ill-timed  jest,  provided  himself,  it  is  said,  with  a  stout 
stick  and  called  at  Rossetti's  house  to  see  his  would-be 
pupil.  However,  the  dread  of  being  made  the  butt  of 
an  impertinent  hoax  was  groundless :  Rossetti  was 
thoroughly  earnest  and  enthusiastic  in  his  desire  to 
learn.  Madox  Brown  at  once  accepted  him  as  a  scholar, 
and  the  meeting  laid  the  foundations  of  a  personal 
friendship  destined  to  produce  the  most  momentous 
results  in  the  world  of  art.  In  fact,  it  was  this  friendship, 
which  lasted  until  severed  by  death,  and  the  teaching  and 
influence  of  the  elder  artist — one  of  the  most  strongly 
original  of  painters — which  confirmed  the  younger  in  the 
independent  views  he  even  then  took  of  art,  and  the 
militant  spirit  he  so  soon  displayed  in  propounding  his 

Other  friendships,  almost  equally  far-reaching  in  their 
results,  had  commenced  earlier,  William  Holman  Hunt 
and  Rossetti  being  acquaintances  at  the  Academy  schools. 
A  third  student,  an  intimate  of  Hunt's,  and  soon  to  be 
equally  an  intimate  of  Rossetti's,  was  John  Everett 
Millais.  At  this  time  both  Hunt  and  Millais,  though 
students,  had  exhibited  pictures  of  recognised  merit,  and 
were  far  in  advance  of  Rossetti  in  all  technical  matters. 
The  counsel  and  example  of  Hunt,  and  the  brilliant 
achievements  of  Millais,  went  far  to  reconcile  Rossetti  to 


the  drudgery  that  was  so  uncongenial  to  him,  and  to  spur 
him  on  to  steady  and  careful  work  along  the  lines  laid 
down  by  Madox  Brown.  It  was  the  association  of  these 
three  lads — Hunt  being  twenty-one,  Rossetti  twenty,  and 
Millais  nineteen  in  1848 — that  was  to  result  in  the  most 
important  art  movement  of  modern  England,  a  wave  of 
freshness  and  enthusiasm  that,  like  the  ripples  caused  by 
the  stone  flung  into  the  water,  spread  and  grew,  and 
quivered  and  quickened,  in  so  many  and  such  divers  ways 
that  none  shall  say  at  any  definite  point  this  was  the 
limit,  and  here  the  influence  of  the  Pre-Raphaelites 

And,  taken  together,  what  supreme  qualifications  these 
three  had !  Rossetti,  an  ardent  proselytiser,  full  of 
dreams  and  desires,  dowered  with  the  poet's  soul,  loving 
intensely  and  appreciating  keenly  all  striving  after  the 
true  and  the  beautiful,  and  gifted  with  that  wonderful 
power  of  infusing  his  own  enthusiasm  into  others  that 
marks  the  born  leader  of  men  :  Hunt,  self-contained  and 
fervent,  hard-working,  and  strongly  desirous  of  notable 
and  original  achievement :  Millais,  the  marvel  and  shining 
light  of  the  schools,  already  a  successful  artist,  conscious, 
may  be,  of  powers  within  him  far  in  advance  of  many  who 
sat  in  the  high  places  of  art,  and  full  of  the  ambition  of 
genius :  this  surely  was  a  memorable  coterie !  What 
wonder  that  the  constant  companionship  of  these  three, 
ttn  imagination  of  Rossetti,  the  sturdy  self-reliance  of 
Hunt,  and  the  technical  knowledge  of  Millais,  acting  and 
reacting  on  each  other,  infusing  into  this  one  poetic 
insight,  and  encouraging  that  other  to  toil,  resulted  later 
in  the  production  from  their  brushes  of  masterpieces 
instinct  with  life,  full  of  beauty  and  thought  in 
conception,  and  sincere  and  true  in  execution ;  pictures 
whose  existence  was  a  protest  against  the  flimsy 
banalities  that  were  the  outcome  of  the  art  of  the  day. 


But  it  must  not  be  forgotten,  when  one  comes  to 
consider  what  the  movement  was  that  these  artists 
inaugurated,  what  the  tenets  were  upon  which  they 
based  their  crusade,  that  Rossetti  the  dreamer,  and 
through  him  Hunt  the  reformer  and  Millais  the 
executant,  were  strongly  influenced  by  the  thought  and 
the  personality  of  Ford  Madox  Brown.  His  feeling  was 
that  art  was  moribund  in  the  cage  of  convention  ;  that 
the  systematic  generalisation  of  rules  of  art  was  utterly 
pernicious ;  that  the  contrary  course  of  minute  research 
into  individual  facts  was  imperative ;  and  that  when 
painting,  a  picture  of  incident,  instead  of  thinking  how  the 
picture  would  compose  best  and  look  pretty,  the  artist 
should  consider  how  the  action  probably  took  place  in 
reality.  This  was  the  artistic  creed  that  he  consistently 
followed  through  a  long  and  laborious  life — the  gospel 
that  he  practised  long  before  the  others  began  to  preach 
it.  He  it  was  who,  cognisant  of  the  beauty  of  a  simple 
and  primitive  school  of  pictorial  presentment  that  was 
based  on  loving  study  of  actuality  and  not  on  the  cold 
convention  of  classic  tradition,  drifted  into  archaism  as 
a  man  yields  to  fate :  who,  seeing  the  falsity  and  futility 
of  the  art  of  the  period,  had  already  struck  out  for 
himself  an  original  line  of  work  in  which  was  noticeable 
an  endeavour  after  truer  light  and  shade  (differentiating, 
for  instance,  night  and  morning,  indoor  and  outdoor 
effects)  and  a  desire  for  the  absolute  verisimilitude  and 
dramatic  presentment  of  fact,  something  apart  from  the 
petty  trivialities  of  the  prevalent  story-picture  or  the 
theatrical  display  of  the  "grand  style." 

Madox  Brown  was  at  an  early  stage  (in  fact,  it  might 
be  said,  throughout  his  career)  strongly  influenced  by 
Holbein,  and  later  the  frescoes  in  the  Brancacci  Chapel 
at  Florence  confirmed  him  in  his  admiration  and 
appreciation  of  the  heartfelt  seriousness  and  high 


ndeavour  of  the  early  masters,  both  Italian  and 
rlemish — often  naive  in  their  presentment  of  fact,  but 
Iways  sincere ;  often  painting  with  unnatural  hardness, 
ut  always  with  loving  care.  He  it  was  who  pointed 
Tit  to  Rossetti  the  charm  that  lies  in  their  work,  the 
race  and  decorative  beauty,  and  the  tender  and  careful 
ainting  displayed  in  their  panels  and  canvases.  One 
an  imagine  how  such  seed  once  sown  flourished  in  the 
ongenial  soil  of  Rossetti's  mind,  already  quickening  with 

contempt  of  the  artistic  cant  of  the  day,  when  all  men 
mcied  they  could  be  Leonardos  or  Raphaels,  heedless 
rhether  they  possessed  or  lacked  Leonardo's  stupendous 
enius  or  Raphael's  mighty  power ;  the  cant  which 
nplied  that  by  a  mere  routine  study  of  classic  tradition 
ainters  could  be  turned  out  from  the  schools  to  rival  the 
reatest  masters  of  the  past — the  pernicious  idea,  which 
xisted  rather  as  an  accepted  axiom  than  as  an  avowed 
octrine,  that  art  could  be  learned  by  rote,  and  painters 
quipped  to  produce  masterpieces  by  the  application  of 
:hool  precepts,  whether  they  possessed  souls  to  conceive 
nd  hands  to  compass,  or  whether  they  were  as  little 
Dgnisant  of  poetry  and  truth  and  beauty  as  they  were 
1-equipped  in  matters  of  execution  and  style. 

Of  course  all  art  was  not  so  debased  at  this  time — it 
mst  not  for  a  moment  be  forgotten  that  there  were 
ainters  of  noble  aim  and  fine  achievement ;  but  these 
rere  the  exceptions,  and  the  average  art  of  the  exhibitions 
ras  commonplace  in  the  extreme,  based  on  the  con- 
entions  of  the  schools  and  not  on  the  verities  of  Nature, 
nd  for  the  most  part  unadorned  with  any  grace  of  style 
r  fervour  of  imagination.  It  was  this  inadequacy  of 
lotive  and  convention  of  treatment  that  the  minds  of 
le  artists  soon  to  be  known  as  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
irotherhood  contemned.  Rossetti  was  fired  to  rebel 
gainst  the  flimsy  unreality  then  rampant,  not  only  by 


Madox  Brown's  example,  but  by  the  discovery  in  < 
manuscript  by  William  Blake  of  the  most  outspoken  (anc 
maybe  largely  nonsensical)  strictures  upon  many  grea 
artists,  "any  men  whom  Blake  regarded  as  fulsomeh 
florid,  or  lax,  or  swamping  ideas  in  mere  manipulation  " 
and  when  he  and  Hunt  and  Millais,  meeting  one  nigh 
at  the  house  of  the  latter,  found  Lasinio's  book  o 
engravings  of  the  frescoes  at  the  Campo  Santo  a 
Pisa,  their  enthusiasm  was  kindled  and  their  vagu< 
desires  took  form — for  the  art  before  them  was  simpl< 
and  sincere,  not  the  product  of  lifeless  dogmas,  bu 
the  result  of  reverent  study ;  and  they  saw  in  it,  o: 
thought  they  saw,  aspiration  and  not  decline,  imperfection: 
maybe,  but  not  the  corruption  of  decay,  and  above  al 
it  was,  as  Ruskin  later  said,  "eternally  and  unalterabl} 

So  an  artistic  brotherhood  was  formed  to  put  intc 
practice  the  enthusiasms  and  the  dreams  which  wen 
crystallised  in  the  minds  of  the  three  by  the  chanct 
sight  of  this  book  of  engravings,  and  the  nam< 
"Pre-Raphaelite"  adopted  as  a  distinctive  appellation 
But,  as  Holman  Hunt  has  well  put  it,  "  neither  then  noi 
afterwards  did  they  affirm  that  there  was  not  mud: 
healthy  and  good  art  after  the  time  of  Raphael ;  but  i 
appeared  to  them  that  afterwards  art  was  so  frequentl) 
tainted  with  the  canker  of  corruption  that  it  was  only  ir 
the  earlier  work  they  could  find  with  certainty  absolute 
health.  Up  to  a  definite  point  the  tree  was  healthy 
above  it  disease  began,  side  by  side  with  life  then 
appeared  death." 

These  three  then  were  the  founders  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood ;  later,  others  were  enlisted,  Thomas  Woolner 
sculptor;  James  Collinson,  painter  (who  retired  later 
and  whose  place  was  filled  by  Walter  Howell  Deverell, 
painter);  Frederick  George  Stephens,  then  painter,  now 


the  doyen  of  art  critics ;  and  William  Michael  Rossetti, 
younger  brother  of  Dante  Rossetti,  also  critic  and  poet ; 
and  though  Ford  Madox  Brown  declined  the  invitation 
to  join  the  society,  simply  on  the  ground  that  his  sturdy 
and  independent  spirit  had  no  faith  in  coteries,  he  still 
worked,  as  he  had  already  done,  along  the  same  lines 
is  they  did,  and  probably  with  a  much  clearer  knowledge 
ind  a  much  more  settled  view  of  what  he  sought.  In 
:act,  though  Rossetti  was  the  founder,  if  founder  there 
yere  (primus  inter  pares  would  better  express  the 
position)  of  the  Brotherhood  as  a  society,  of  Pre- 
Raphaelism  as  a  living  force,  Madox  Brown  was 
ndubitably  the  originator,  though,  of  course,  he 
brmulated  no  name  to  his  creed,  disliking  "to  deal  in 
vatchwords  over-much." 

It  is  true  that  afterwards,  by  Rossetti  and  Woolner, 
is  well  as  by  Madox  Brown,  the  Brotherhood  was  treated 
is  a  mere  boyish  league,  a  piece  of  youthful  camaraderie ; 
md  though  in  later  years  these  artists  may  have  seemed 
i  little  ashamed  of  the  fresh  enthusiasms  and  lofty  aims 
:hat  they  so  valiantly  strove  to  realise,  at  the  time  there 
s  no  doubt  that  each  and  all  were  keenly  in  earnest, 
md  certainly  the  awkward  word  "  Pre-Raphaelite,"  which 
hey  coined,  has  so  long  been  accepted  as  the  appellation 
>f  their  school  and  the  tradition  that  has  succeeded 
hem,  and  has  so  entirely  passed  into  the  language 
vith  this  arbitrary  significance,  that  it  would  be  vain  to 
ittempt  now  to  substitute  any  more  accurate  or  more 
expressive  term. 

It  should  perhaps  be  noted  here,  that  in  later  days  the 
expression  "  Pre-Raphaelite "  came  to  have  a  second 
neaning,  apart  from  that  originally  intended  by  the 
nembers  of  the  Brotherhood.  They  meant  to  express 
>y  the  word  the  qualities  of  sincerity  and  directness,  of 
lonesty  and  definite  inspiration,  which  they  discerned  in 


the  work  of  the  early  Italian  painters ;  afterwards  the 
public,  who  came  to  associate  the  term  largely  with  the 
little-seen  later  work  of  Rossetti,  applied  it  to  his  pictures 
and  those  of  Burne-Jones,  ignoring  the  earlier  meaning 
of  the  word,  and  using  it  to  denote  the  eclectic  and  poetic 
school  of  which  those  painters  were  the  founders,  and  of 
which  their  work  is  the  highest  achievement.  With  this 
double  sense  the  word  exists,  and  with  this  twofold 
meaning  it  may  be  accepted,  inasmuch  as  the  later 
tradition  was  derived  from  the  more  mature  development 
in  the  style  of  these  two  artists,  who  were  originally 
Pre-Raphaelites  in  the  stricter  sense. 

The  formation  of  the  Brotherhood  linked  these  young 
artists  closely  and  intimately  together ;  living  in  each 
other's  companionship,  constantly  meeting  with  open 
hearts  together,  they  talked  and  aspired  and  dreamed  and 
wrought  in  high  endeavour ;  and  though  much  has  been 
said  and  written  as  to  their  artistic  beliefs,  and  though  a 
good  deal  of  misapprehension  exists  as  to  their  aims 
and  the  methods  they  advocated,  as  a  matter  of  fact  their 
whole  creed  might  almost  be  summed  up  in  one  word, 
for  the  keystone  of  the  doctrines  that  they  attempted  to 
preach  by  word  and  deed  was  simply  SINCERITY.  Mr 
Michael  Rossetti  enunciates  the  bond  of  union  between 
them  very  clearly  and  concisely :  he  says  "  it  was 
simply  this : 

"  I. — To  have  genuine  ideas  to  express  ; 

II. — To  study  Nature  attentively,  so  as  to  know  how 

to  express  them ; 
III. — To  sympathise  with  what  is  direct  and   serious 

and  heartfelt  in  previous  art,  to  the  exclusion * 

of    what  is   conventional    and    self-parading 

and  learned  by  rote  ;  and 
IV. — Most  indispensable  of  all,  to  produce  thoroughly 

good  pictures  and  statues." 


This  is  the  sober  fact  of  the  matter ;  and  all  the  ideas 
ibout  a  mere  attempted  revival  of  meclisevalism,  the 
iccessity  of  accepting  and  depicting  everything  seen, 
selecting  and  rejecting  nothing,  and  the  imperative 
/alue  of  hard  and  laborious  handling  were  but  outside 
news  of  their  opinions,  travesties  of  their  return  to 
Mature  and  a  healthy  early  art  as  her  interpreter,  and  of 
:heir  desire  to  paint  with  studious  care  and  exactitude, 
vhich  were  foisted  upon  the  public  as  the  be-all  and  end- 
ill  of  their  aims  by  those  who  failed  to  see  the  motives 
mderlying  everything  they  did.  Doubtless,  carried 
iway  by  enthusiasm,  they  hampered  themselves,  as  young 
nen  will  do,  especially  in  the  heat  of  argument,  by 
promulgating  dogmas  not  sufficiently  thought  out,  by 
idvancing  theories  on  the  spur  of  the  moment,  and  it  is 
imall  wonder  that,  tired  of  the  threadbare  pretensions 
ind  bombastic  creed  of  many  of  the  painters  of  the  day, 
hey  went  to  extremes,  deeming  with  Browning  "  One 
nust  be  fanatic,  Be  a  wedge,  a  thunderbolt,"  to  move 
he  world. 

But  the  statement  has  been  often  made,  and  may  as 
veil  be  once  more  controverted,  that  the  Pre-Raphaelites 
:laimed  as  essential  that  the  characteristics  of  a  model 
ihould  be  copied  implicitly,  no  deviation  being  permitted 
o  suit  the  character  of  the  picture ;  but  though  they 
loubtless  thought  that  the  most  faithful  reproduction  of 
Mature  was  essential  in  art  which  purported  to  be  a 
epresentation  of  fact,  they  did  not  think  that  this 
ihould  debar  them  from  exercising  the  artist's  choice, 
md  departing,  when  the  subject  demanded  such 
leparture,  from  the  features  of  a  model — e.g.  in  the 
)icture  which  Millais  painted  as  a  practical  exposition 
)f  their  views,  Lorenzo  at  the  House  of  Isabella,  the  head 
)f  Lorenzo  was  painted  from  William  Michael  Rossetti, 
nit  the  hair  was  made  golden  instead  of  black ;  and 


Rossetti,  painting  the  Virgin  Mary  in  the  same  year  from 
his  sister,  also  made  a  similar  variation.  What  they  did 
seek  and  claim  as  essential  was  truth  of  presentment, 
verisimilitude  of  representation  in  every  way,  and  though 
they  endeavoured  to  attain  this  by  scrupulous  fidelity  in 
matters  of  detail,  and  by  close  elaboration  in  painting, 
to  say  that  they  were  slaves  to  microscopic  copying  is 
both  inaccurate  and  misleading ;  for,  as  has  been 
authoritatively  stated  by  Holman  Hunt,  although  they 
deemed  such  care  in  painting  good  and  useful  for  a 
student's  training,  they  would  never  have  admitted  that 
the  relinquishing  of  this  habit  of  work  by  a  matured 
painter  would  make  him  less  of  a  Pre-Raphaelite. 

It  was  in  the  following  year,  1849,  that  these  firstfruits 
of  the  Brotherhood  were  exhibited.  The  members  set 
to  work,  eager  to  produce  pictures  which  should  embody 
and  shadow  forth  their  aims,  and  Millais,  Rossetti,  Hunt, 
and  Collinson  each  showed  in  the  spring  exhibitions  oi 
that  year  a  work  remarkable  in  every  way,  a  group 
especially  noteworthy  when  considered  as  the  achieve- 
ment of  such  youthful  artists.  All  the  pictures  appeared 
with  the  mystic  letters  "  P.-R.B."  appended  to  the  painters' 
signatures  ;  Rossetti  contributing  the  Girlhood  of  Mary 
Virgin  to  the  Free  Exhibition ;  and  Hunt's  Rienzi 
swearing  Revenge  over  his  Brother's  Corpse,  and  Millais's 
Lorenzo  at  the  House  of  Isabella,  being  hung  on 
the  walls  of  the  Royal  Academy.  Each  work  was  well 
hung,  well  received,  and  (further  mark  of  appreciation) 
promptly  sold  ;  while  the  criticisms  in  the  reviews  were 
not  merely  tolerant,  but  almost  enthusiastic,  the  "  Times" 
devoting  two  columns  of  comment  to  the  works  by 
Millais  and  Hunt  as  the  remarkable  feature  of  the 
exhibition,  and  the  "Athenaeum"  speaking  in  the  most 
laudatory  terms  of  Rossetti's  panel. 

It  was  in   the    next   year,   when   the  meaning  of  the 


s  :s 



itials,  "P.-R.B."  attached  to  the  signatures  became 
icwn  (they  were  ignored  or  overlooked  on  the  first 
:casion),  and  when  it  was  seen  that  a  group  of  young 
en  had  banded  themselves  together  in  defiance  of 
tablished  rules,  daring  to  think  independently,  to  doubt 
e  value  of  much  that  was  universally  accepted  as  good 
t,  and  working  boldly  in  contravention  of  accepted 
nons,  that  the  storm  burst ;  and  from  press  and 
iblic,  artist  and  layman,  abuse  and  obloquy  of  the 
ost  virulent  kind  were  poured  forth,  unmeasured 
dignation  and  horror  expressed, — their  work  con- 
firmed as  shameful  and  preposterous,  iniquitous,  and 
famous,  mere  catchpenny  charlatanism  being  the  least 
il  attributed  to  them,  and  an  attempted  subversion  of 
I  right  principles  of  art  the  lightest  charge  laid  to  their 
>ors.  Small  encouragement  to  honest  aim  this !  But 
is  amusing  now  to  note,  what  was  pretty  patent  at  the 
ne,  that  the  kindly  and  encouraging  attention  paid  to 
eir  work  as  that  of  young  men  of  promise  became 
Langed  to  such  violence  of  attack  when  it  was  seen  that 
ey  actually  dared  to  think  on  independent  lines,  and  to 
it  their  heretical  and  unorthodox  views  into  practice.  It 
pretty  evident,  in  looking  back,  that  personal  animosity 
is  the  cause  of  the  condemnation  of  their  work  in 
[50  and  1851,  better  work  than  that  of  1849,  and  lacking 
e  minor  crudities  and  imperfections  incidental  to  early 
tempts ;  and  it  was  only  when  an  independent  and 
mest  critic  appeared,  and  John  Ruskin  wrote  an 
ipreciative  notice,  that  any  attempt  was  made  to 
asp  their  endeavour,  or  to  search  for  any  truth  that 
ight  underlie  their  heterodoxy. 

It  has  been  frequently  stated  that  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
rotherhood  owed  its  existence  to  Mr  Ruskin,  that  the 
tists  who  banded  themselves  together  under  that  name 
2re  his  disciples,  and  that  it  was  the  reading  of  his 


the  work  of  many  artists,  outside  the  Brotherhood,  who 
during  the  whole  or  a  portion  of  their  careers  have 
worked  under  the  spell  of  Pre-Raphaelism,  to  show 
how  far-reaching  has  been  the  influence  of  the  movement. 
There  are  many  painters  whose  accomplishment  is  as 
beautiful  and  as  sincere  as  that  of  the  originators  of  the 
cult,  and  who  may  be  considered  if  not  as  members  of 
a  school,  certainly  as  co-workers,  with  the  same  simple 
and  lofty  ambition ;  and  though  these  may  have  been 
overshadowed  in  the  past  by  their  more  prominent 
confreres,  a  glance  at  the  illustrations  in  the  following 
pages  will  show  something  of  the  beauty  and  charm 
they  have  infused  into  many  masterpieces  which  are 
unknown  outside  a  small,  no  matter  how  choice,  circle 
of  sympathisers. 

But  to  one  who  is  an  ardent  lover  of  such  genuine 
endeavour  after  truth  and  beauty,  poetry  and  passion 
in  art  as  the  Pre-Raphaelite  movement  inaugurated 
nearly  fifty  years  ago,  it  is  a  matter  for  question  whether 
there  are  rising  around  us  the  young  men  to  carry  on  the 
tradition.  It  is  true  that  there  are  those  among  the 
younger  artists  who  paint  under  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
influence,  but  of  the  beautiful  creations  recorded  and 
alluded  to  in  these  pages  by  much  the  larger  portion  is 
the  achievement  of  the  elder  men,  men  who  are — one 
is  thankful  to  say — still  among  us,  but  who  may  not, 
one  fears,  leave  worthy  successors  behind  them.  We 
have  no  Rossetti  to-day,  only  imitators  of  his  manner- 
isms ;  no  youth  to  paint,  as  young  Millais  did,  such 
pictures  as  Mariana  in  the  Moated  Grange  and  The 
Proscribed  Royalist ;  to-day  followers  of  the  school  are 
too  often  mere  decorators,  or  mere  echoes  of  the  greater 
souls  sooner  or  later  to  pass  from  us.  Holman  Hunt  is 
with  us,  and  Frederick  Sandys,  and  there  are  others; 
but  where  are  the  young  men  to  whom  the  lighted 


mp  might  be  handed,  and  who  would  guard  and 
lerish  it?  We  have  artists  who  can  paint  as  closely 
i  ever  Hunt  and  Millais  did,  but  can  they  give  us  the 
iul  that  there  is  in  such  a  picture  as  Sir  Isumbras  at 
e  FordJ  We  have  men  who  do  not  hesitate  to  use, 
id  abuse,  all  the  resources  of  the  pigment-maker,  but 
tio  paints  to-day  with  the  jewel-like  brilliance  and 
stre  of  Rossetti  ?  Posers  we  have  who  prate  of  line 
id  colour,  but  they  neglect  the  thought,  the  poetry, 
at  must  pervade  all  art  that  is  to  be  noble,  and  are 
ere  blind  producers  of  artificial  medisevalism,  quaint 
id  pretty,  but  how  lacking  in  the  spirit  of  old  romance 
at  shines  from  the  work  of  Frederic  Sandys,  the 
nderness  and  sweetness  that  fill  the  pictures  of  Arthur 
ughes  !  It  is  saddening  to  think  that  though  we  search, 
*  search  in  vain  among  the  pictures  of  to-day  for  the 
>ly  simplicity  of  the  Ecce  Ancilla  Domini^  the  pure 
ty  of  the  Donna  delta  Finestra,  the  tragic  grandeur 

Medea,  the  absolute  and  unshrinking  veracity  of  the 
tone  Breaker:  the  achievement  we  find  is  just  what 
e  great  men  of  the  movement  managed  to  avoid,  a 
Ise  mediaevalism  of  form  and  treatment,  a  soulless 
ideavou;-  to  be  decorative.  It  almost  seems  that  the 
ider  the  ripples  flow  the  weaker  they  are,  and  that 
.ough  the  Gothic  feeling  which  prompted  the  crusade 
jainst  classic  conventionality  survives,  the  poetic  and 
•mantic  spirit  that  made  the  Pre-Raphaelite  art  of 
>sterday  a  living  art,  an  art  to  move  the  soul,  has  not 
ascended  to  those  who  attempt  to  follow  in  the  footsteps 
"  the  leaders. 

But  it  may  be,  and  one  hopes  that  it  is  so,  that  one 
ils  to  find  so  readily  the  coming  work  because  it  is 
/ershadowed  by  the  productions  of  the  great  ones  who 
•e  still  in  our  midst,  or  who  have  only  recently  ceased 
om  among  us ;  and  it  may  also  be,  and  this  is  probable, 


that  the  Pre-Raphaelite  movement  has  extended, 
recognised  or  unrecognised,  so  far,  and  succeeded  so 
well  in  killing  the  falsity  it  was  a  protest  against,  that 
there  is  no  longer  the  background  of  banality  against 
which  the  firstfruits  of  the  crusade  shone  out  so  clearly. 
Perhaps,  too,  it  is  not  altogether  loss,  that  the  arts  of 
design  far  and  wide  should  receive  some  of  the  impulse 
that  has  done  so  much  for  pictorial  art ;  still  one  would 
sacrifice  much  in  other  directions  to  see  on  our  gallery 
walls  such  work  as  The  Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona^  from 
the  easel  of  a  young  man  of  twenty-four. 



kOME  two  years  before  the  death  of  Ford  Madox 
'Brown,  a  number  of  artists  and  admirers,  recognising 
t  during  a  long  and  laborious  life  this  great  painter  had 
eived  no  official  recognition,  subscribed  the  sum  of 
oo,  and  commissioned  him  to  paint  a  picture  to 

presented  to  the  National  Gallery,  which  should 
;quately  represent  his  work,  and  should  be  a  fit 
morial  of  his  genius.  Such  a  commission  was 
ibably  unique, — certainly  it  conveyed  to  the  artist 
:ompliment  and  an  appreciation  of  the  highest  kind ; 
1  one  can  only  regret  that,  dying  in  1893,  the  work 
ich  he  undertook  in  acceptance  of  this  commission 
>  never  finished :  the  striking  and  powerful  canvas 
ich  now  hangs  in  our  National  Gallery  as  an  example 
his  style,  "  Christ  washing  Peter's  Feet"  being  one  of 

earlier  works. 

?or  fifty  years  Madox  Brown  laboured  quietly  and 
adily,  producing  masterpiece  after  masterpiece,  unrecog- 
sd  as  a  great  artist  either  by  the  press  or  the  public, 
cnown  even  to  a  large  number  of  the  supposed  cogno- 
iti  of  the  day,  content  to  go  his  way  in  peace ;  pained 
haps  that  honest  attempt  and  great  achievement  alike 
>uld  be  so  little  welcomed,  but  absolutely  incapable  of 

personal  "puff"  and  glaring  self-advertisement  that 
the  bane  of  art  nowadays,  and  thoroughly  disdainful 



of  all  such  artifices.  It  was  as  a  mere  child  that  he  first 
evinced  the  artistic  bent  which  was  the  foreshadowing  of 
his  future  eminence ;  and  his  father,  recognising  his 
ability,  placed  him  first  under  Professor  Gregorius  at 
Bruges,  then  under  Van  Hanselaer  of  Ghent,  and  finally 
entered  him  at  the  Academy  at  Antwerp,  at  that  time 
directed  by  Baron  Wappers.  It  was  here  that  he  became 
thoroughly  equipped  as  regards  technical  knowledge, 
obtaining  a  mastery  over  all  and  sundry  processes  of 
art  which  enabled  him  later  to  accomplish  notable  work 
alike  in  oils  and  fresco,  water-colour  and  encaustic 

Early  in  his  career  after  leaving  Antwerp  he  sojourned 
in  Paris,  and  to  his  arduous  labours  there,  while  studying 
at  the  Louvre  and  drawing  from  the  life,  he  probably 
owed  that  knowledge  of  style  which  is  apparent  in  his 
work.  It  was  at  this  date  that  he  painted,  influenced 
doubtless  by  Delacroix,  the  powerful  picture,  Parisina's 
Sleepy  which  was  shown  at  the  British  Institution  in 
1845,  and  attracted  the  notice  of  Rossetti ;  later  he 
developed  his  more  mature  and  independent  style,  and 
began  to  put  in  practice  the  system  of  accurate  and 
veracious  presentment  of  light  and  shade  that  he  had 
worked  out  for  himself,  in  contradistinction  to  the  preva- 
lent artificial  studio  lighting — differentiating  indoor  and 
outdoor  effects,  morning  and  afternoon  lights,  and  so  on. 
The  pictures  which  he  painted  upon  his  return  to 
England,  such  as  the  portrait  known  as  A  Modern  Holbein, 
had  all  the  finish  and  fidelity  of  expression  which  were 
the  characteristics  of  his  matured  style.  After  three 
years'  stay  in  Paris,  he  went  to  Rome,  impelled  by 
anxiety  for  the  health  of  his  young  wife ;  but  his  stay 
was  brief,  some  nine  months  in  all,  though  fruitful  in 
matters  of  art.  It  was  at  Rome  and  Florence  that  the 
beauties  of  the  Italian  masters,  early  and  late,  now  first 


revealed  to  him,  had  a  great  effect  upon  his  mind, 
sing  new  possibilities  into  his  hopes  and  dreams, 
widening  and  deepening  his  sympathies  and  aims, 
the  health  of  his  invalid  wife  did  not  improve  ;  and, 
ous  to  gratify  her,  he  hastened  to  bring  her  home  to 
country  she  longed  for  but  did  not  live  to  see,  for 
died  in  Paris  on  the  journey  between  station  and 

nd  so  the  bereaved  artist  settled  in  England  in  1846, 
oughly  equipped  and  accomplished,  and  proceeded 
aint  steadily  and  well,  sending  picture  after  picture  to 
Royal  Academy,  but  always  to  meet  with  some 
tt,  something  to  irritate  him  and  confirm  him  in  his 
empt  of  all  cliques  and  corporations.  Sometimes 
pictures  were  unhung,  sometimes  skied,  sometimes 
bited  without  the  appropriate  frame ;  and  finally, 
itisfied  in  every  way  with  the  treatment  accorded 

he  decided  no  longer  to  exhibit  at  the  Academy, 
n  his  boyhood  enamoured  of  labour,  the  amount  of 
:  he  completed  was  stupendous,  and  it  would  be 
:>ssible  to  give  here  a  catalogue  of  his  pictures,  to  say 
ting  of  his  numerous  cartoons  for  frescoes,  stained 
3,  and  other  styles  of  decorative  art ;  but  among  his 
luctions,  while  steadily  working  in  quiet,  and  gradually 
ining  a  clientele  of  purchasers,  were  such  fine  and 
:h-making  canvases  as  Our  Lady  of  Good  Children 
.8),  the  tragic  Cordelia  and  Lear  (1849),  Chaucer 
'ing  the  Legend  of  Constance  (1851),  and  in  the  same 

Pretty  Baa  Lambs,  a  picture  which  shows  that  if 
teachings  of  Madox  Brown  influenced  the  young 
ts  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood,  their  love  of 
uteness  of  realisation  reacted  on  the  older  artist, 
ir,  Christ  washing  Peter's  Feet,  Cordelia's  Portion, 
%  Renews  Honeymoon,  the  magnificent  Work  (now 

of  the    gems    of  the  Manchester  public  collection), 


Romeo  and  Juliet,  a  masterpiece  of  emotional  directness, 
Cromwell  at  St  Ives,  The  Last  of  England  (now  at 
Birmingham),  and  many  other  grand  pictures  were  con- 
ceived and  completed ;  and  in  more  recent  years  he 
was  the  creator  of  an  unique  series  of  thoughtful  and 
accomplished  works  in  the  frescoes  which  decorate  the 
Manchester  Town  Hall,  panels  in  which  the  artist 
has  realised  with  equal  genius  the  aspect  of  the  remote 
centuries  in  The  Romans  building  Mancunium,  and  The 
Expulsion  of  the  Danes,  and  has  depicted  with  dramatic 
veracity  such  incidents  of  later  days  as  Dalton  collecting 
Marsh  Gas,  and  The  Transit  of  Venus. 

These  mural  paintings  are  perhaps  his  best-known 
works,  but  it  is  scarcely  by  these  that  his  achievement 
should  be  judged  ;  for  they  were  produced  under  con-, 
ditions  and  limitations  imposed  by  the  necessity  of  the 
Gambier-Parry  process,  which  precluded  the  possibility 
of  their  being  so  individually  characteristic  as  some  of 
his  work  in  other  mediums.  Possibly  if  one  were  asked 
for  the  finest  example,  the  most  complete  and  successful 
realisation  of  his  aims,  The  Last  of  England,  would  be  the 
picture  to  rise  to  the  mind's  eye.  This  work  was  first 
conceived  on  the  occasion  of  a  visit  to  Gravesend  in  1851, 
to  bid  farewell  to  Woolner,  the  sculptor,  then  on  his  way 
to  Australia ;  and  as  Madox  Brown  was  contemplating  a 
voyage  to  India,  the  idea  appealed  to  him  of  realising 
on  canvas  the  pathos  and  emotion  of  such  a  setting  out 
into  a  new  world.  So  he  painted  himself,  his  wife,  and 
their  little  baby  as  emigrants — the  wife  full  of  sadness, 
gazing  her  last  on  the  loved  shore  of  the  old  country, 
while  the  tiny  baby-hand  clasps  hers  in  the  same  uncon- 
cious  loving  trust  that  prompts  her  to  hold  her  husband's, 
strengthening  and  consoling  him  in  his  hour  of  grief, 
maybe  of  failure ;  while  the  man's  face,  though  doubting 
and  questioning,  is  full  of  that  strength  which  shall  make 





the  master  of  his  fate  wherever  duty  leads  him. 
ivious  of  the  drizzling  spray  and  the  rout  of  shouting 
w-passengers,  they  sit  overcome  by  the  flood  of 
gled  thought  that  surges  over  them.  Such  is  the 
are,  one  of  the  masterpieces  of  English  art,  wrought 

loving  care,  for  "to  ensure  the  peculiar  look  of 
t  all  round  which  objects  have  on  a  dull  day  at  sea, 
is  painted  for  the  most  part  in  the  open  air  on  dull 
j,  and,  when  the  flesh  was  being  painted,  on  cold 
>."  So  wrote  the  artist,  and  he  added,  "  absolutely, 
out  regard  to  the  art  of  any  period  or  country,  I  have 
I  to  render  this  scene  as  it  would  appear.  The 
ateness  of  detail  which  would  be  visible  under  such 
litions  of  broad  daylight  I  have  thought  necessary  to 
ate,  as  bringing  the  pathos  of  the  subject  more  home 
tie  beholder." 

rhat  care  and  zeal  in  order  to  be  sure  that  everything 
bsolutely  right  and  true !  And  as  in  this  instance 
artist  depicted  the  shuddering  bleakness  of  a  grey 

at  sea,  so  in  other  works  he  realizes  the  true 
:>undings  of  his  drama  :  here  showing  the  beauty  of 
nlight  as  in  The  Corsair,  or  sunlight  as  in  The  Widow's 
;  there  the  glamour  of  dawn  as  in  Romeo  and  Juliet ', 
le  sombre  dimness  of  a  dungeon  as  in  Foscari. 
\  another  masterpiece,  Work,  may  be  noted  the  same 
essful  grappling  with  the  endeavour  to  paint  things 
ley  are  seen — the  stress  and  heat  of  a  blazing  July 
is  actuality  itself,  the  presentment  both  of  the  fact 

the  lesson  to  be  drawn  from  it  is  dramatic  yet 
rained,  and  the  whole  composition  is  a  poem  that  he 

runs  may  read,  full  of  the  dignity  of  labour,  the 
:hiness  of  toil 

"  which  beads  the  brow,  and  tans  the  flesh 
Of  lusty  manhood,  casting  out  its  devils  !  " 


This  chef  d'ceuvre  has  been  well  characterised  as  "ii 
colour,  a  cut  open  jewel ;  in  meaning,  a  sermon  an< 
a  hymn  of  praise ;  in  conception,  the  offspring  of  a  bii 
brain ;  in  execution,  the  product  of  a  master's  hand 
The  magnificence  of  gesture  alone  in  the  main  group  c 
workmen — the  navvies — stamps  the  composition  as  th 
work  of  a  great  artist ;  and  its  multiplicity  of  inciden 
and  meaning,  the  elaboration  of  the  composition,  th 
novelty  of  the  subject,  and  the  completion,  intellects 
and  artistic,  of  its  rendering  are  all  entirely  admirable. 
It  is  in  such  work  as  this  that  we  have  the  highest  fruit 
of  the  artist's  passionate  hopes  and  lofty  devotion  to  th 
ideal  he  set  before  himself. 

When,  a  century  hence,  some  great  and  discriminatin, 
critic  shall  arise  to  write  the  record  of  art  in  England  i 
the  latter  half  of  the  nineteenth  century — one  of  the  mos 
interesting  periods  in  artistic  history — it  is  a  truisrr 
maybe,  to  say  that  many  accepted  reputations  will  be  a 
pricked  bubbles,  while  others  at  present  obscured  wi 
shine  out  more  brightly  than  they  do  to-day ;  but  it  i 
safe  to  prophesy  that  in  the  latter  category  will  be  foun 
the  name  of  Madox  Brown.  Just  how  great  he  was,  jus 
where  he  will  be  placed  in  the  hierarchy  of  painters,  on 
cannot  say ;  but  certainly  future  generations  will  appre 
ciate,  and  ever  see  more  clearly,  the  honest  independenc 
of  thought,  the  wide  and  kindly  human  sympathies,  th 
great  originality,  the  wondrous  power  of  poetic  an 
dramatic  presentment,  and  the  mastery  over  colour  tha 
characterises  his  pictures.  It  is  quite  true  that  in  som 
of  his  immature  works  the  colouring  has  been  criticise 
as  inharmonious  ;  that  there  is  an  inclination  to  ovei 
emphasise,  to  exaggeration,  in  much  of  his  work ;  tha 
many  fine  compositions  are  marred  by  bizarrerie  c 
gesture  amounting  almost  to  distortion  ;  and  in  so  fa 
as  he  often  sacrificed  grace  in  his  desire  for  the  forcibl 






resentation  of  dramatic  action,  he  fell  short  of  his  high 
il :  but  there  are  many  pictures  that  are  free  from 
nish,  pictures  such  as  have  been  mentioned,  palpitat- 

with  intense  thought  and  feeling  and  admirable  in 
icity  and  power,  redolent  of  largeness  of  conception 

virility  of  style  and  handling,  as  well  as  of  feeling  for 
>ur,  which  surely  rank  among  the  finest  of  the  genera- 
It  is  by  these  that  he  must  be  judged,  and  one 
not  but  think  that  the  verdict  of  future  generations 

place  him  among  the  great  ones  of  art,  deeming  him 

painter  of  supreme  dramatic  power,  the  artist  who 
LS  pierced  to  the  heart  of  deep  emotions,  and  conceived 
us  the  very  aspect  of  great  deeds." 
[o  notice  of  Madox  Brown,  however  brief,  would  be 
tplete  which  did  not  include  an  allusion  to  the  accom- 
hed  attainment  of  his  daughters,  Mrs  Hueffer  and 
i  W.  M.  Rossetti,  and  the  dawning  genius  of  his  son 
/er.  Dying — "untimely  lost" — at  the  age  of  nine- 
i,  the  latter  was  already  a  poet  and  novelist  of  great 
rer  and  still  greater  promise,  and  the  artist  of  many 
:iful  and  deeply  imaginative  compositions ;  and  no 
i  may  say  what  a  heart-breaking  blow  his  death  was 
lis  father,  or  what  a  stupendous  loss  to  the  world, 
'he  work  of  both  Mrs  Hueffer  and  Mrs  Rossetti  is 
ible  for  charm  and  distinction,  the  portraits  and  fancy 
ds  of  the  former,  and  especially  the  subject  pictures 
:he  latter,  being  remarkable  in  a  high  degree.  Such 
vings  as  the  Romeo  and  Juliet  or  The  Duet  (which 
ite  Rossetti  characterised  as  a  really  perfect  picture) 
full  of  thought,  full  of  the  very  soul  of  the  artist ;  and 
jgh  in  her  work  one  can  trace  the  influence  both  of 

father  and  her  brother-in-law,  there  is  an  added 
rm  beyond  the  beauty  of  presentation  or  the  poetry 
olour,  the  individual  charm  of  a  sweet  and  strong  soul 
;  saw  with  the  perception  of  genius  and  drew  with  the 


tenderness  of  an  artist  who  strove  to  make  a  picture 
as  has  been  well  said,  "the  exact  and  beautiful  expression 
of  a  thing  for  ever."  To  dismiss  such  work  with  so  few 
words  of  appreciation  is  to  treat  it  in  an  admittedly 
inadequate  fashion,  but  in  so  brief  a  review  space  forbids 
a  more  extended  allusion. 



early  days  of  Holman  Hunt,  as  of  many  an  artist, 
were  days  of  long-continued  struggle  with  adverse  and 
ropitiatory    circumstances.      The    first   cause    of  dis- 
"tenment  lay  in  the  objection  his  father  entertained 
tis  following  his  natural  bent  and  entering  upon  the 
er  of  a  painter  ;  the  second  came  when,  an  unwilling 
sent  being  given   by  his  parent,   the  uphill  task  lay 
>re  the  young  artist  of  making  money  enough  to  afford 
his  daily  bread. 

.t  a  very  early  age  he  was  sent  into  the  city  to  earn 
living,  and  to  get  the  artistic  craze  driven  out  of  his 
i  :  but,  curiously  enough,  in  each  of  the  two  offices 
uccessively  entered  he  found  a  chance  encouragement 
i  the  first  from  his  employer,  an  auctioneer  of  artistic 
:livities,  who  sympathised  with  a  congenial  spirit 
sad  of  instilling  commercial  principles  into  him  ;  and 
r  from  a  fellow-clerk,  who  designed  patterns  and 
rht  young  Hunt  what  he  could.  During  this  time, 
lis  father's  opposition  did  not  go  so  far  as  absolute 
libition,  all  his  slender  earnings  were  expended  in 
ing  for  tuition  in  oil  painting,  until  at  last  he  broke 
and  entered  upon  a  definite  course  of  artistic  study, 
pite  of  his  parent's  refusal  to  countenance  or  assist 
such  undertaking.  Dark  days  ensued,  three  days  a 
k  he  painted  portraits,  copied  pictures,  or  did  any- 


thing  whereby  he  might  earn  a  slender  livelihood ;  the 
other  days  he  spent  in  study  at  the  British  Museum, 
endeavouring  to  qualify  for  the  Royal  Academy  schools. 
In  this  attempt  he  failed  more  than  once,  but  finally  was 
admitted ;  and  here  among  his  fellow-students  were 
Millais  and  Rossetti,  with  whom  an  intimacy  ensued, 
culminating,  as  we  have  seen,  in  the  formation  of  the 
Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood. 

Already,  in  his  student  days,  the  force  of  circumstances 
had  developed  in  Holman  Hunt  a  remarkable  power  of 
patient  work,  and  a  definite  and  concentrated  aim,  while 
he  had  also  acquired  a  desire  for  precision  of  touch,  and 
a  distaste  for  all  loose,  vague,  irresponsible  handling. 
These  qualities  were  among  those  cherished  by  the 
Brotherhood,  and  these  very  qualities  which  marked  the 
young  student  mark  the  accomplished  artist  to-day :  in 
fact  he  was,  and  is,  by  far  the  most  consistent  and  con- 
stant Pre-Raphaelite,  still  remaining  true  to  the  artistic 
beliefs  of  his  youth.  In  his  later  works,  as  in  his  less 
mature  pictures,  we  find  to  the  full  the  characteristics  of 
the  Pre-Raphaelite  creed  ;  alike  in  The  Hireling  Shepherd 
and  the  Christ  among  the  Doctors  are  displayed  the  same 
loving  care  and  patience  lavished  on  the  execution  of  the 
work,  and  the  same  endeavour  to  pourtray  things  as  they 
actually  are,  to  realise  the  scene  depicted  ;  while  in  these, 
and  notably  in  others  such  as  The  Light  of  the  World 
and  The  Shadow  of  the  Cross,  are  seen  the  qualities 
more  individual  to  Holman  Hunt  than  his  confreres — the 
strong  religious  feeling  and  complete  and  carefully 
thought-out  symbolism  which  pervade  the  whole  work, 
at  the  same  time  as  the  detail  beloved  by  the  school  is 
everywhere  used  to  accentuate  the  principal  motive  of  the 
picture,  and  to  exhibit  and  enforce  the  moral  aim  that  to 
this  painter,  as  to  Ruskin,  seemed  the  imperative  duty 
of  an  artist. 







In  the  early  days  of  his  career  it  was  indeed  fortunate 
at  he  possessed  such  a  self-centred  mind  and  so  keen 
d  indefatigable  a  power  of  toil,  for  the  first  and  many 
cceeding  pictures  that  he  exhibited  after  the  foundation 

the  Brotherhood  were  the  objects  of  contempt  and 
/ilement  of  every  description.  The  Rienzi  vowing 
wgeance  over  the  Body  of  his  Brother  certainly  had 
ilts  of  crudeness  and  hardness,  blemishes  incidental  to 
*  work  of  an  artist  who  lacked  the  training  of  experi- 
ce ;  but  these  disappeared  in  the  work  of  a  few  years 
:er,  such  as  The  Hireling  Shepherd  and  The  Two 
mtlemen  of  Verona  (both  painted  in  1851),  which 
:tfacted  the  notice  and  inspired  the  championship  of 
hn  Ruskin.  The  former  picture  is  so  characteristic 
at  it  may  be  taken  as  typical  of  Holman  Hunt's 
:hnique  and  of  his  constant  endeavour  to  use  art  as  a 
>ans  of  presenting  a  moral  and  spiritual  thought, 
le  artist  shows  a  shepherd  kneeling  and  talking  to  a 
:1,  and  leaving  his  sheep  to  stray  to  their  ruin.  She 
s  a  tame  lamb  in  her  lap,  but  knows  so  little  how  to 
re  for  it  that  she  is  feeding  it  with  unripe  apples, 
owing  herself  a  type  of  those  careless  daughters  who 
ike  unmotherly  mothers  and  unwomanly  women.  Some 

the  neglected  sheep  have  already  crossed  a  little 
•earn,  and  are  in  the  midst  of  the  corn  ;  with  no  one  to 
)k  after  them,  and  temptation  lying  so  near,  they 
turally  follow  their  own  ruinous  instincts.  And  a 
uble  peril  awaits  them,  for  not  only  will  they  perish 

surfeiting  on  the  green  corn,  but  the  wolf  is  already 

sight,  and  has  sprung  upon  some  of  their  strayed 
mpanions ;  while  their  guardian,  careless  of  their 
Ifare,  is  catching  insects  to  amuse  his  companion,  and 
5  weak  and  superstitious  nature  is  frightened  when  he 
ds  his  capture  is  a  death's-head  moth.  Throughout 
s  artist  insists  on  the  sinfulness  of  dereliction  of  duty, 


and  enforces  the  lesson  by  displaying  its  dire  con 
sequences  ;  while  the  whole  picture  is  a  gem  of  veracit} 
in  its  studious  rendering  of  trees  and  sheep,  and  summe 
sunshine  and  shadow. 

From  the  time  that  Ruskin  proclaimed  the  beauty  am 
interpreted  the  aim  of  his  work,  the  artist's  reputatioi 
has  been  a  constant  and  increasing  one  ;  for  though  thi 
sum-total  of  his  achievement  is  not  large,  owing  t< 
the  deep  thought  and  tender  patience  exercised  on  even 
canvas  that  has  come  from  his  easel,  the  character  o 
his  pictures  is  so  unique  and  distinguished  as  to  maki 
each  one  linger  in  the  memory  of  every  person  who  ha 
seen  them.  The  Hireling  Shepherd  was  followed  by  ; 
work  of  a  similar  aim,  The  Awakened  Conscience ;  late 
came  The  Strayed  Sheep  ;  and  then  the  religious  tendency 
of  the  artist's  mind,  already  shown  in  A  Converted  Britis> 
Family  sheltering  a  Missionary,  prompted  the  stupendou 
achievement  of  the  well-known  Light  of  the  World.  Th 
success  of  that  great  allegory  led  to  the  artist's  first  so 
journ  in  the  East,  and  the  fruits  of  more  than  one  lonj 
stay  among  Biblical  scenes  and  surroundings  may  b 
seen  in  the  many  subjects  that  he  has  painted,  inspire< 
by  Holy  Writ ;  The  Scapegoat,  The  Finding  of  th 
Saviour  in  the  Temple,  The  Afterglow,  The  Shadow  o 
Death,  The  Plains  of  Esdraelon,  The  Triumph  of  th 
Innocents,  and  other  well-known  pictures  owe  thei 
inception  to  the  artist's  deep  religious  feeling,  and  thei 
marvellous  completeness  of  pourtrayal  and  symbolisn 
to  the  unwearying  conscientiousness  that  lavished  tim 
and  trouble  on  them.  More  than  this,  the  artist  ha 
accomplished  a  noble  achievement  by  illustrating  th' 
history  of  Christianity  among  all  its  actual  surroundings 
so  far  as  they  can  be  recalled  or  reproduced,  an< 
realising  for  ever  the  actual  aspect  of  the  scenes  as  the; 


Among  other  works,  as  fully  informed  with  thought 
id  zeal,  are  The  Marriage  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  The 
hip,  the  Portrait  of  Sir  Richard  Owen,  Amaryllis,  and 
fay-day  on  Magdalen  Tower,  and  in  each  and  every 
le  the  artist  is  revealed,  as  a  French  critic  well  said,  as 
la  conscience  fait  peintre."  He  is  admittedly  the  master 
"  definite  presentment,  and  in  almost  all  his  work  we 
id  (as  has  been  said  before),  not  only  the  artist  striving 
»  depict  the  actuality  of  things,  but  the  teacher  aiming 
•  inculcate  a  moral  lesson ;  and  though  to  many  an 
Imirer  the  paintings  that  are  entirely  the  outcome 
"  the  artist's  own  conception  are  to  the  full  as  interesting 
;  those  which  are  perhaps  less  original,  inasmuch  as  they 
•e  inspired  by  actual  rather  than  imaginative  motives, 
ill  it  is  by  his  religious  paintings  that  Holman  Hunt  is 
*st  known,  and  to  these  that  he  owes  his  fame. 

And  yet  it  has  been  said  that  he  is  not  a  great  religious 
tist ;  and  this  may  be  so,  for  it  is  not  altogether  impos- 
ble  that  in  his  striving  after  contemporary  verisimilitude 
:  fact  he  may  have  lost  something  of  the  divinity,  the 
Dd-like  power  and  presence,  that  we  would  fain  see  in 
^ctures  which  endeavour  to  pourtray  the  scenes  of  the 
:e  of  Christ.  But  whether  he  fails  (as  others  less  con- 
tentious in  endeavour  and  less  high-minded  in  aim  have 
Dt  failed)  or  whether  he  succeeds  in  realising  more  than 
ie  externals  of  the  divine  story,  there  is  no  doubt  that 
;  an  exponent  of  a  lofty  moral  aim  he  stands  second  to 
Dne.  The  parallelism  and  symbolism  that  pervade  his 
ictures  convey  to  all  men  a  lesson  that  no  man  can  be 
ie  worse  for,  though  sometimes  it  may  be  that  the 
arable  dominates  the  composition  in  such  a  way  as  to 
reclude  a  pleasure  we  should  always  be  able  to  derive 
om  the  work  of  a  great  painter- — the  delight  in  a  piece 
F  pure  artistic  achievement.  Apart  from  any  sermon  or 
.legory,  one  should  be  able  to  take  pleasure  in  a  picture 


as  a  picture,  and  this  pleasure  Holman  Hunt  does  not 
always  give  us  ;  and  it  is  a  very  moot  question  whether 
his  highest  successes  have  not  been  those  canvases  in 
which  the  inculcation  of  a  moral  is  less  the  object  of  the 
artist's  endeavour  than  the  presentment  of  a  poetic  fact. 
Of  The  Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona  Ruskin  said  "There 
has  been  nothing  in  art  so  earnest  or  complete  since  the 
days  of  Albert  Durer "  :  the  picture  is  in  every  sense  a 
masterpiece,  the  perfect  realisation  of  an  unique  concep- 
tion, and  the  only  blemish,  if  blemish  there  be,  is  the  lack 
of  beauty  in  the  women's  faces ;  and  when  one  contem- 
plates such  achievements  as  this,  the  Isabella  and  the 
Pot  of  Basil,  and  that  gem,  the  Amaryllis,  one  regrets 
that  so  few  pictures  of  poetic  charm  have  come  from  the 
artist's  easel,  and  one  wonders  whether  a  little  sacrifice  of 
the  painter's  didactic  aim  would  not  have  resulted  in  a 
higher  aesthetic  grace  and  a  more  beautiful,  one  would 
not  say  greater,  artistic  achievement.  Hence  it  is  a  matter 
of  sincere  congratulation  to  many  of  the  artist's  admirers 
to  know  that  he  has  turned  once  more  to  the  realms  of 
poetry  as  a  field  of  inspiration,  and  has  repeated  on  canvas 
the  composition  of  that  marvellous  woodcut  in  the  famous 
Moxon  Tennyson,  The  Lady  of  Shalott. 



8   .S 



g  I 

2   .3 

H        sj 




THE  Pre-Raphaelite  days  of  John  Everett  Millaisdate 
from  1849  to  1859,  and  in  the  course  of  these  ten  years 
produced  a  large  number  of  important  works,  many  of 
hich  will  rank   as   masterpieces   of  the   English  school, 
ifted  with  the  greatest  artistic  power,  his  career  may  be 
ustly  said  to  have  been  one  continuous  record  of  success, 
nmarred  by  adverse  circumstances  such  as  Holman  Hunt 
ad  to  contend  with,   and  unembittered  by  the  neglect 
tiat  was  the  portion  of  Madox  Brown.     The  record  alike 
f  his  student  days  and  of  his  years  of  accomplishment, 
hows  him  as  an  artist  supremely  gifted  by  Nature,  and 
ompletely  equipped  by  training,  a  painter  whose  genius 
as  recognised  by  all  from  the  days  of  his  youth,  while 
or  many  a  long  year  he  was  the  favourite  of  both  critics 
ind  the  public.     Born  in  1829,  he  evinced  in  the  days  of 
is  childhood  such  a  precocious  talent  that  when  in  1838 
is  parents  came  to  London,  they  sought  the  advice  of 
>ir  Martin  Archer   Shee,  at  that  time  the   President  of 
le    Royal    Academy.       Sir    Martin    spoke   very   highly 
f    the    sketches    submitted    to   him,    and,    fortified    by 
is  encouragement,  young  Millais  entered  Sass's  school, 
nd    thence    passed    to    the    Royal    Academy   schools, 
here   his  success  was  both    instantaneous  and  remark- 
ble.      A    medallist    at    the    age    of  thirteen,    at  fifteen 
e  began  to    paint,   and  from    that    time   forth   he  sold 


his  work  readily ;  in  fact,  he  was  enabled  a  few  years 
later  to  place  ,£500  which  he  had  saved  at  the 
disposal  of  his  friend  Holman  Hunt,  who  was  then 
almost  tempted  by  his  ill-success  to  abandon  the 
career  he  had  planned,  and  seek  fortune  as  a  farmer 
in  the  Colonies. 

It  was  perhaps  fortunate  for  Millais  that  when  he  was 
nineteen  he  fell  under  the  influence  of  Rossetti  and  Hunt. 
Doubtless,  he  was  a  ready  convert  to  the  doctrines  that 
the  former  enunciated  so  fervently, '  and  that  the  latter 
strove  so  hard  to  express  concretely ;  but  it  is  not 
improbable  that,  had  he  not  been  intimate  with  these 
youthful  iconoclasts,  he  would  have  slipped  into  the  con- 
ventional prettiness  of  early  Victorian  art.  In  this  case 
certainly  the  world  would  have  been  the  poorer  for  the 
non-existence  of  such  work  as  the  Ophelia  and  the 
Autumn  Leaves ;  while  it  may  even  be  that  without 
the  stimulus  caused  by  the  mutual  association  of  the  trio, 
Millais  might  in  after-years  have  been  swamped  by  the 
beauty  of  his  own  handicraft,  and  have  developed  into  a 
mere  accomplished  survivor  of  the  prevalent  soulless 
school  of  the  period. 

When  the  chance  intimacy  of  the  young  artists  de- 
veloped into  the  formation  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brother- 
hood in  1849,  it  was  Millais  who  was  looked  upon  by  his 
confreres  as  the  champion  of  the  movement ;  and  a  strong 
and  fit  champion  he  was,  quick  to  feel  the  truths  that  they 
desired  to  promulgate,  eager  to  enter  the  fray,  far  better 
equipped  and  more  accomplished  technically  than  either 
Hunt  or  Rossetti,  and  equally  alive  with  them  to  the 
charm  of  poetry  in  art :  and  it  may  well  be  that  from  him 
came  the  suggestion  that  each  should  exemplify  their 
creed  by  illustrating  a  subject  from  Keats,  a  poet  then 
almost  unknown  to  the  general  reader,  but  very  dear  to 
all  the  members  of  the  Brotherhood.  Millais  chose  as  his 


subject  Lorenzo  at  the  House  of  Isabella,  and  despite  the 
iact  that  much  work  in  the  old  style  remained  to  be 
inished,  he  set  to  work  and  painted  the  picture  which 
s  now  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the  Walker  Art  Gallery  at 
Liverpool,  a  picture  which  has  been  called  "the  most 
wonderful  painting  that  any  youth  under  twenty  years  of 
ige  ever  did  in  the  world."  It  is  true  that  the  work  as  a 
yhole  may  be  said  to  be  incoherent  in  design,  but  this 
vas  due  to  the  enthusiastic  acceptance  by  the  painter  of 
he  Pre-Raphaelite  demand  that  an  artist  should  say  to 
limself,  not  "how  will  this  scene  compose  best?"  but 

how  did  this  really  happen  ? "  and  should  attempt  to 
ealise  it  with  all  due  dramatic  intensity.  Certainly  the 

icture  does  not  lack  this  last  quality,  nor  is  it  wanting 
n  beautiful  colour  or  great  delicacy  and  sweetness ;  but 
hough  Millais  did  not  display  Madox  Brown's  tendency 
o  over-emphasis,  or  Holman  Hunt's  inclination  to  harsh- 
less,  there  is  in  this,  and  in  the  Ferdinand  and  Ariel,  a 
light  exaggeration  of  expression  and  pose,  a  nuance  of 
nelegance  which  was  to  disappear  in  such  work  as  The 
Huguenot  and  the  Sir  Isumbras,  pictures  in  which  the  Pre- 
Raphaelite  ideal  perhaps  reached  its  highest  expression, 
nasmuch  as  they  were  frankly  modern  and  contemporary 
n  execution,  absolute  realisations  of  scenes  as  conceived 
)y  the  painter,  and  uninfluenced  by  the  work  of  any 
former  artist,  except  so  far  as  they  marked  a  return  to  the 
absolute  honesty  and  veracity  of  the  painters  whose  work 

(he  Brotherhood  specially  admired. 
Although  at  this  date  Millais  sold  his  pictures,  and  sold 
£hem  well,  still  he  was  equally  with  his  fellow-workers  the 
Subject  of  much  adverse  and  blindly   abusive   criticism  : 
the  picture  Ferdinand  lured  by  Ariel,  which  followed  the 
^Lorenzo,  and   Christ  in  the  House  of  His  Parents,  better 
known  as    The   Carpenter's  Shop,  were  heartily  and  un- 
sparingly condemned;  and  the  pictures  shown  in   1851, 


Mariana  in  the  Moated  Grange,  The  Return  of  the  Do\ 
to  the  Ark,  and  The  Woodman's  Daughter,  were  all  greete 
with  obloquy,  although  they  are  poetic  in  conception,  ar 
at  the  same  time  lovingly  render  absolute  facts.  Tl 
same  beauty  of  idea  is  visible  in  the  Ophelia  and  Ti 
Huguenot  of  the  following  year ;  and  though  the  form 
is  scarcely  a  picture  to  appeal  to  the  multitude,  and  tl 
other  was  at  first  included  in  the  merciless  onslaughts  th 
were  made  on  all  Pre-Raphaelite  works,  later  the  inhere] 
beauty  and  charm  of  the  second  picture,  not  to  speak 
the  finished  and  exquisite  technique,  made  it  popul 
in  the  extreme. 

In  the  following  year,  1853,  Millais  was  elected  A.R.^ 
and  from  this  time  most  of  the  critics  were  respectful,  ar 
many  were  appreciative.  The  foreboding '  that  Rossel 
expressed  that  "  now  the  whole  round  table  was  dissolved 
was  not  yet  justified,  though  it  ultimately  proved  we! 
founded  enough ;  for  the  artist  still  produced  su< 
genuinely  Pre-Raphaelite  pictures  as  The  Order  , 
Release  and  The  Proscribed  Royalist,  which,  popularise 
in  their  thousands  by  engraving,  combined  to  place  tl 
painter  in  the  forefront  of  public  appreciation.  Lat 
came  The  Rescue,  a  picture  of  a  fireman  carrying  childn 
down  the  staircase  of  a  burning  house  and  restoring  the 
to  the  arms  of  the  distracted  mother :  this,  which  w; 
much  praised  at  the  time  by  Ruskin,  was  followed  by  tl 
beautiful  and  poetic  Blind  Girl  and  Autumn  Leavt 
This  latter  has  been  so  well  described  by  Sir  Walt 
Armstrong  that  one  may  be  permitted  to  transcribe  h 
words.  He  says  it  is  "  a  work  of  sentiment  and  efTec 
It  tells  no  particular  story,  though  it  conveys  stror 
emotion.  Four  girls,  two  of  gentle  blood  and  tv 
children  of  the  people,  are  heaping  up  withered  leav< 
for  the  burning ;  behind  them  is  a  twilight  sky  bathin 
everything  in  its  gorgeous  tints,  and  absorbing  what  litt 


there  is  left  of  day.  In  colour  this  is  one  of  the  finest  of 
Mr  Millais's  works — some  might  call  it  the  finest  of  all — 
and  its  undefined  intensity  of  sentiment  is  a  complete 
reply  to  those  who  deny  a  poetic  imagination  to  its 
author."  To  this  description  these  charming  words  of 
Mr  Andrew  Lang  are  a  fit  corollary.  He  says,  and  no 
one  could  express  more  clearly  the  feeling  that  pervades 
the  work,  "the  spiritual  note  of  the  picture  lies  in  the 
contrast  between  the  carelessness  of  the  young  girls,  who 
are  heaping  the  fire  for  the  fun  of  it,  and  *  the  serious 
whisper  of  the  twilight,'  as  Poe  fancied  he  could  hear  the 
stealing  of  the  darkness  over  the  horizon." 

The  next  year,  1857,  saw  The  Escape  of  a  Heretic  and 
Sir  Isumbras  at  the  Ford — the  former  a  beautiful  work, 
:ull  of  all  the  painter's  most  admirable  qualities ;  the 
latter,  to  the  minds  of  some,  the  greatest  achievement 
of  the  artist's  Pre-Raphaelite  days.  This  work  was 
ilways  a  great  favourite  with  the  painter  himself,  and  in 
ater  days  he  worked  again  on  it,  improving  it  in  many 
Darticulars.  The  picture  represents  a  ford  in  the  "  north 
xmntrie,"  a  wide,  fair  stream,  on  the  banks  of  which  stands 
i  typical  peel  tower.  An  aged  knight  in  golden  armour, 
-iding  home  in  the  evening  light,  has  taken  up  two 
bhildren  who  have  been  gathering  sticks,  one  before  him 
and  the  other  clinging  behind,  to  cross  the  ford.  That  is 
iall,  but  the  lovely  colour  of  the  whole  composition,  and 
nhe  charming  sentiment  that  pervades  it,  would  make  it  a 
],vork  of  note,  even  without  the  kindly,  thoughtful,  noble 
face  of  the  old  knight,  serene  in  the  twilight  of  life  as  the 
andscape  in  the  afterglow  of  evening,  and  the  varied 
bxpressions  of  the  two  children — the  younger,  a  chubby 
boy,  being  intent  only  on  keeping  his  position,  while 
;:he  elder,  a  girl,  safer  in  her  place  in  front  of  their 
guardian,  sits  gazing  at  the  kindly  cavalier,  with 
ivonder  and  awe  mingling  in  her  expressive  face.  With 



The  Vale  of  Rest,  a  picture  painted  two  years  later,  and 
too  well-known  to  need  description  here,  the  mastei 
passed  from  the  manner  of  his  youth  and  entered  upon 
another  phase  of  his  art ;  and  here  consideration  of  his 
work  must  cease.  Any  detailed  allusion  to  the  produc- 
tions of  this  later  period  would  be  out  of  place  here,  foi 
it  can  hardly  be  said  that  the  more  recent  style  is  the 
outcome  or  the  development  of  the  earlier ;  although  it  i< 
true  that  in  many  later  works  one  traces  the  effect  of  the 
earnest  and  painstaking  endeavour  of  his  younger  days 
still  it  must  be  admitted  that  at  this  time  the  paintei 
ceased  to  be  a  Pre-Raphaelite  artist. 

It  cannot  be  said  of  Millais  that  he  had,  even  in  the 
youthful  days  of  fire  and  fervour,  a  personal  and  individ' 
ual  message  to  give ;  he  does  not  aim  at  the  presentmen 
of  a  dramatic  climax  as  Madox  Brown  so  often  did  ;  h( 
does  not  strive  to  pourtray,  like  Rossetti,  the  soul  tha 
looks  forth  from  the  rapt  eyes  of  some  sweet  inhabitant  o 
poet-land,  "  out  of  space  and  out  of  time " ;  nor  doe; 
he  paint  with  the  moral  and  didactic  aim  of  Holmar 
Hunt.  Nevertheless,  in  all  his  Pre-Raphaelite  work  on< 
sees  the  qualities  that  he  possessed  in  common  with  hii 
coadjutors,  a  love  of  absolute  and  sincere  veracity  o 
presentment,  and  a  deep  sympathy  with  the  poetic  as  con 
trasted  with  the  commonplace  side  of  things.  How  far  ir 
the  lovely  and  thoughtful  work  of  this  period  the  beautifu 
conception  is  the  artist's  own  one  cannot  say ;  certainly 
in  his  later  work,  when  no  longer  under  the  spell  o 
Rossetti's  personality,  one  misses  the  spirit  that  is  presen 
in  these  pictures  of  an  earlier  day,  and  one  is  almos 
driven  to  think  that  these  poetic  and  imaginative  work: 
were  planned  and  accomplished  by  the  artist  amids 
surroundings  and  associates  that  furnished  the  inspiratioi 
that  he,  the  more  accomplished  artist,  bodied  forth  s< 

SIR   J.    E.   MILLAIS,   BART.,    P.R.A. 


SIR  J.   E.   MILLAIS,   BART.,  P.R.A. 



and  in  those  later  pictures  which  have  charmed  the  multi- 
tude on  the  walls  of  Burlington  House. 

Unhampered  by  the  technical  inability  that  was  such  a 
stumbling-block  to  Rossetti  in  the  realisation  of  his  en- 
trancing visions,  and  gifted  by  Nature  with  a  power  of  sure 
and  rapid  work  that  rendered  quite  unnecessary  the  long 
and  patient  labour  with  which  Holman  Hunt  builds  up  his 
pictures,  one  would  expect  that  the  work  of  Millais  as  a 
whole  would  have  excelled  the  achievement  of  his  fellow- 
artists.  But  it  cannot  fairly  be  said  that  this  is  so.  There 
are  individual  pictures  of  beauty,  distinction  and  charm,  but 
despite  the  admirable  qualities  already  alluded  to,  as  a 
group  they  lack  the  individuality  and  the  distinctive  in- 
forming spirit  that  makes  the  work  of  Madox  Brown  and 
Holman  Hunt  so  interesting  and  consistent ;  though  many 
an  admirer  thinks  that  had  he  continued  to  work  on  the 
old  lines  his  achievement  (great  artist  as  he  was)  would  have 
been  still  greater,  and  regrets  keenly  that  from  any  cause 
he  should  have  lapsed  into  another  groove.  It  would 
perhaps  be  too  much  to  say  that  when  he  abandoned  the 
tenets  of  the  Brotherhood  of  which  he  was  the  erstwhile 
champion,  he  became  in  any  sense  the  "  Lost  Leader"  of 
the  poem ;  and  one  cannot  think  that  a  painter  who  died 
a  baronet  and  the  official  head  of  English  art  had  retro- 
graded from  the  position  he  took  up  and  the  work  he 
accomplished  as  a  youth  ;  still  there  are  those  who  would 
give  much  to  see  in  his  more  mature  work  the  poetic 
insight,  the  grasp  of  the  romantic  aspect  of  life,  that  mark 
his  earlier  pictures,  and  who  mourn  that  one  so  supremely 
gifted  as  a  painter  should  seem  in  his  later  days  to  have 
cared  so  little  what  the  subject  was  that  he  depicted  with 
unrivalled  ability. 

SIR   J.   E.    MILLAIS,   BART.,   P.R.A. 






ANTE  GABRIEL  ROSSETTI,  possibly  the  most 
original  genius  in  the  domains  of  art  and  letters  that 
is  century  has  seen,  was  born  in  1828,  the  son  of  Gabriel 
ossetti  and  Frances  Polidori,  his  wife.  The  Christian 
ames  conferred  upon  him  were  Gabriel  Charles  Dante,  but 
p  early  dropped  Charles,  and  transposed  the  two  others, 
id  as  Dante  Rossetti  his  name  will  go  down  to  posterity, 
i  the  house  of  his  father,  a  man  of  singularly  wide 
lading  and  ardent  thought,  and  a  poet  as  well  as  a 
holar,  he  lived  in  an  atmosphere  permeated  with  literary 
ilture.  The  natural  consequence  was  that,  gifted  to 
i  extraordinary  degree  with  poetic  and  imaginative 
Dwers  of  the  highest  order,  he  would  seem  to  have 
:quired  unconsciously  (or,  at  any  rate,  without  any 
*ertion  other  than  a  pleasurable  one)  the  means  of 
terary  expression,  a  craftsmanship  in  verse  that  is 
eyond  cavil ;  but  when  the  longing  came  upon  him  to 
hibody  pictorially  the  visions  that,  even  as  a  lad, 
resented  themselves  to  him,  the  drudgery  of  acquiring 
jie  rudiments  of  painting  was  repugnant  to  his  spirit ; 
fod  it  cannot  be  denied  that  much  of  his  work  in  this 
liedium  consequently  exhibits  technical  shortcomings. 
LS  to  his  inspiration  there  can  be  no  two  opinions.  He 
ras  essentially  and  thoroughly  a  poet  of  the  very  highest 
ink ;  his  mind  teemed  with  coloured  and  mystical 


to  speak;  of 

trials,  if  CTZ 


-±     i::: 
::•:     i.  t:     ::      i^t 

:-     :«_: 




days,  he  undoubtedly  acquired  by  this  preliminary 
gery,  and  exercised  at  this  time,  a  power  of  keen 
,nd  accurate  drawing,  as  is  plainly  evinced  by  the  pencil 
)ortrait  of  his  grandfather,  Gaetano  Polidori,  dating 
rom  1848. 

The  same  year  saw  the  formation  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
Brotherhood  (as  already  detailed),  and  the  inception  of 
lossetti's  first  picture  The  Girlhood  of  Mary  Virgin, 
yhich  was  hung  next  year  in  the  "  Free  Exhibition " 
n  Hyde  Park,  while  Millais  and  Holman  Hunt  showed 
heir  pictures  at  the  Royal  Academy.  The  kevjriotes_ 
fJjlis_4Hcture  may  be  said  to  be  simplicity  anr|  SPrrf^ 
The  Virgin,  represented  as  a  girl  of  about 

eventeen,  is  shown  on  a  balcony  beneath  an  overhanging 
dne,  working,  under  the  direction  of  her  mother  St  Anna, 
it  an  embroidery  representing  a  lily,  the  emblem  of 
)urity,  which  she  copies  from  a  plant  watered  by  a 
ittle  angel  with  rose-coloured  wings.  The  father,  St 
oachim,  is  seen  outside  pruning  a  vine,  on  one  of  the 
upports  of  which  roosts  a  dove  surrounded  by  a  golden 
lalo  and  symbolic  of  the  Holy  Spirit ;  and  there  are 
mmerous  other  details,  each  with  a  well-chosen  symbolic 
)r  spiritual  meaning,  such  as  the  books  of  the  virtues 
>n  which  the  lily  stands,  the  seven-thorned  briar  and 
;even-leaved  palm  branch,  surrounded  by  a  scroll 
nscribed,  "  Tot  dolores,  tot  gaudia."  The  picture  is 
tainted  in  bright  colours,  quite  in  the  style  of  the  early 
irtists  the  Brotherhood  took  as  their  models ;  the 
landling,  though  bv^jno  means  masterly,  is  delicate 
ind  true,  and  the  composition  is  quite  simple  and  naively 
decorative,,  while  the  effect  of  the  work  as  a  whole  is 
/cry  pleasing,  full  as  it  is  of  spiritual  thought  and 
appropriate  symbolism. 

This     picture,     and     the    one    which     followed     from 
Rossetti's  brush  next  year,   the  wonderful   Ecce  Ancilla 


Domini  (marvellous  indeed  as  the  work  pf  a  boy  of 
twenty-one),  may  be  taken  as  typical  of  the  artist's 
work  in  oils  in  the  first  of  the  three  periods  into  which 
his  art  may  be  said  to  fall.  These,  and  some  of  the 
water-colours  of  this  period,  are  the  only  truly 
Pre-Raphaelite  pictures  that  he  produced ;  his  later 
works  (as  will  be  seen)  being  by  no  means  closely 
painted  transcripts  from  Nature,  but  rather  romantic 
works  of  the  most  ideal  kind,  in  which,  however,  traces 
are  still  to  be  found — in  the  attention  to  details  and 
accessories — of  the  artist's  erstwhile  enthusiasm  for 
sincerity  and  veracity  of  presentment.  But  almost  more 
characteristic  of  this  phase  of  Rossetti's  art  are  the 
numerous  water-colours  executed  between  the  years 
1850  and  1860,  full  of  splendour  of  colour  and  freshness 
of  conception.  The  Passover  in  the  Holy  Family  (a 
highly  Pre-Raphaelite  drawing,  conceived  in  1849,  but  left 
unfinished  in  1855);  Paolo  and  Francesca ;  Lancelot 
and  Guinevere  at  the  Tomb  of  Arthur ;  The  Blue  Closet; 
Dante  on  the  Anniversary  of  the  Death  of  Beatrice  ;  The 
Chapel  before  the  Lists  ;  The  Ttme  of  Seven  Towers  ;  Sir 
Galahad;  Lucrezia  Borgia;  Fazio's  Mistress ;  and  many 
others  which  might  be  mentioned.  These  do  not  call  for 
detailed  description ;  each  is  replete  with  rich  colour  and 
imaginative  charm,  and  the  effect  produced  upon  those 
who  were  privileged  to  see  them  (Rossetti  working  then  as 
always  for  a  small  and  intimate  circle,  by  no  means 
desirous  of  any  appeal  to  popular  appreciation)  may 
be  judged  from  the  description  by  the  late  James 
Smetham  of  The  Wedding  of  St  George.  "  One  ol 
the  grandest  things,  like  a  golden,  dim  dream. 
Love,  'credulous  all  gold/  gold  armour,  a  sense  o! 
secret  enclosure  in  '  palace  chambers  far  apart ' ;  but 
quaint  chambers  in  quaint  palaces,  where  angels  creep 
in  through  sliding-panel  doors,  and  stand  behind  rows 

,  she,  //•////  < <//'/•/////. 

•-.•/,-     /,„/;;,•/ 


of  flowers,   drumming  on   golden  bells,  with  wings  crim- 
son and  green." 

A  more  critical  note  from  the  pen  of  Mr  Sydney  Colvin 
may  be  quoted  as  probably  the  soundest  and  sanest 
estimate  ever  penned  of  the  artist's  achievement  of  this 
period,  in  which  the  writer  says  :  "  To  sum  up  generally 
the  characteristics  of  this  period,  the  first  are  vividness 
and  ingenuity  of  dramatic  presentment,  the  idea  so 
predominating  over  the  matter  that  actions  are  allowed 
to  appear  as  strained,  and  compositions  as  naif,  as  they 
please,  provided  only  the  emotional  and  intellectual 
points  are  driven  home.  These  are  among  the  qualities 
whereby  Rossetti's  work  is  obviously  and  spontaneously 
allied  to  that  of  the  Middle  Age ;  others  are  his  enjoy- 
ment of  the  quaint  invention  of  costumes  and  furniture, 
and  the  weight  of  symbolical  meaning  which  he  makes 
every  circumstantial  detail  and  accessory  bear.  Others, 
again,  are  his  neglect  of  the  elements  of  chiaroscuro  and 
atmosphere  in  painting,  and  his  delight  in  and  insistence 
on  the  element  of  colour.  Many  of  the  little  pictures  of 
this  time  flash  and  glow  like  jewels  or  the  fragments 
of  some  gorgeous  painted  window.  Sometimes  this 
brilliancy  and  variegation  of  colour  is  carried  to  a  point 
where  harmony  is  left  quite  behind ;  in  other  instances, 
las  in  Mr  Boyce's  beautiful  version  of  the  Meeting  of 
'Dante  and  Beatrice  in  Purgatory -,  a  water-colour  of  1852, 
ja  scheme  of  extraordinary  daring,  as  it  were  malachite 
land  emerald,  sapphire  and  turquoise  and  lapis-lazuli  set 
side  by  side,  is  nevertheless  treated  as  to  satisfy  as  well 
las  amaze  the  colour-sense." 

In    the    pictures    of    the    second    period    of   Rossetti's  > 
|art  the  more  characteristic  work  is  in  oils,  and  the  artist 
ceased  somewhat  to  tell  a  story  by  means  of  a  dramatic 
(group ;   he    rather    used   a  single    female    figure    and    its 
accessories  as  symbolic  of  an   abstract  idea  or  theme,  a 



personification  of  some ..  InteHeetual  CQn££ptjpn  ;  or  else 
he  simply  painted  beauty  for  beauty's  _sake,  a  lovely 
form  bedecked  with  all  the  rich  adornments  his  vivid 
fancy  revelled  in  ;  a  lovely  face  full  of  sensuous  charm 
and  the  mystery  of  beauty.  In  these  pictures  Rossetti's 
genius  shows  itself  ripe,  but  not  over-ripe ;  the 
characteristics  of  a  certain  type  of  feminine  beauty  are 
obviously  dominant  in  his  work,  though  not,  as  in 
later  days,  over-emphasised ;  and  his  drawing,  while 
occasionally  poor,  is  not  so  faulty  as  it  afterwards  was, 
while  his  colour  throughout  is  masterly,  and  the  painting 
of  the  details  he  delighted  to  introduce  into  his  pictures — 
the  flowers,  rich  stuffs  and  jewels — is  superb.  Later,  his 
colour  was  apt  to  be  hot  and  jarring ;  his  genius,  always 
poetical,  seemed  to  turn  to  the  morbid  in  its  mani- 
festations ;  and,  though  in  the  last  year  or  two  of  his  life 
better  work  came  from  his  easel,  it  is  not  by  the  pictures 
of  this  third  phase  that  he  will  be  judged,  and  they  do  not 
call,  accordingly,  for  detailed  notice.  When  the  subject 
of  Rossetti's  technique  is  under  review,  it  should  be 
noticed  that  it  was  characteristic  of  his  method  of  work 
to  prepare  for  these  larger  pictures  in  oils  very  careful 
chalk  drawings  (which  indeed  might  rather  be  called 
crayon  pictures),  many  of  which  are  to  the  full  as 
beautiful  as  the  finished  work,  possibly  because  he 
understood  the  possibilities  and  the  limitations  of  the 
method  completely ;  and  it  should  also  be  definitely 
stated  that,  though  he  was  admittedly  never  completely 
accomplished  as  a  painter  in  oils,  in  this  department  he 
yet  acquired  real  power  within  the  limits  that  he  set 
himself.  Depth  of  tone  and  chiaroscuro  he  did  not  aim 
at,  but  his  flesh-painting  in  this  middle  period  of  his 
work  is  excellent,  displaying  a  certain  bloom  and  beauty 
together  with  much  delicate  modelling ;  problems  of 
colour  were  by  him  solved  in  the  most  masterly 






manner ;  and,  as  has  been  said,  his  delightful  rendering 
of  accessories,  of  enamels  and  blossoms,  as  in  The  Bride ; 
of  mirrors  and  brazen  vessels,  and  sumptuous  furniture, 
as  in  La  Bella  Mano,  must  always  be  a  keen  source  of 
pleasure  to  the  beholder. 

Perhaps  the  best  known  of  the  pictures  of  this  period  is 
Beat  a  Beatrix ',  the  chalk  version  of  which  dates  from 
1859,  while  the  oil  picture  now  in  the  national  collection 
would  seem  to  have  been  completed  in  1863.  This 
reminiscence  of  the  painter's  lost  wife,  "  pourtrayed  with 
perfect  fidelity  out  of  the  inner  chambers  of  his  soul," 
depicts  Beatrice  seated  on  the  balcony  of  her  father's 
palace  in  Florence,  entranced  in  heavenly  visions ;  and 
the  depth  and  sense  of  mystery,  the  "intense  and 
beautiful  peace,"  pervading  the  work,  place  it  on  a 
plane  apart.  This  was  followed  by  such  work  as  Fait 
Rosamund  (1861);  Belcolore  (1863),  a  gem  of  the  first 
water;  Lady  Lilith  (1864);  and  then  came  the  annus 
mirabilis  of  Rossetti's  artistic  life,  which  saw  the  com- 
pletion of  the  oil-colour  versions  of  such  superb 
masterpieces  as  Monna  Vanna,  II  Ramoscello,  Venus 
Verticordia,  and  The  Beloved.  Later  were  painted  Joli 
Cceur  (1867);  Monna  Rosa  (1867);  the  crayon  version 
of  the  Donna  della  Finestra  (1869);  Mariana  (1870); 
Proserpina  (1874);  Veronica  Veronese  (1872);  and  La 
Bella  Mano  (1875);  the  last  two  marking  perhaps  in 
the  exotic  fulness  of  their  beauty,  the  lavish  wealth  of 
their  conception  and  the  force  of  their  colour  and 
handling,  the  end  of  this,  the  noblest  phase  of 
Rossetti's  art.  These  were  succeeded  by  other  pictures 
|  in  which  the  artist's  individualities  degenerated  into 
;  mannerisms ;  his  ideals  more  or  less  ran  away  with 
.  him,  and  his  colour  and  handling  were  no  longer  equal 
i  to  that  of  his  best  work. 

Most  typical  of  the  highest  achievements  of  Rossetti's 


genius  is  The  Bride,  and  of  this  picture  so  entirely 
adequate  a  description  and  appreciation  has  been 
penned  by  Mr  F.  G.  Stephens,  the  lifelong  friend  of 
the  artist,  that  no  excuses  are  needed  for  quoting  that 
critic's  words  at  length.  "  The  Bride,  or  The  Beloved" 
he  says,  "  dates  its  origin  from  1863,  and  as  regards  its 
splendour  and  colour  and  the  passion  of  its  design 
need  not  fear  comparison  with  the  greatest  works  of 
the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  in  Venice.  In 
these  respects  this  chef -d? oeuvre  is  a  superb  and  ardent 
illustration  of  the  Song  of  Solomon,  *  My  beloved  is 
mine,  and  I  am  his ;  let  him  kiss  me  with  the  kisses  of 
his  mouth,  for  thy  love  is  better  than  wine  ! ' 

"The  picture  comprises — as  if  they  had  halted  in 
a  marriage  procession,  towards  the  spot  where  the 
enraptured  bridegroom  awaits  them — five  life-size  adult 
maidens  and  a  negro  girl,  who,  in  the  front  of  the  group, 
and  bearing  a  mass  of  roses  in  a  golden  vase,  is  adorned 
with  barbaric  jewellery,  all  of  which  harmonises  with 
her  dusky  skin,  which,  although  it  has  the  true 
Titianesque  ruddy  undertint,  is  of  a  deep  bronze-brown 
surface  hue.  The  negress  and  her  burthen  are  intended 
to  contrast  intensely  with  the  costume  and  face  of  the 
bride  herself,  who  is  clad  in  an  apple-green  robe,  as 
lustrous  as  silk  and  as  splendid  as  gold  and  embroideries 
of  flowers  and  leaves  in  natural  colours  can  make  it. 
This  garment  and  its  decorations  support  the  colour 
of  the  dark  maid's  skin,  and  heighten  the  value  of  the 
pure  red  and  white  of  the  bride's  carnations,  while  the 
contours  of  the  African's  face  and  form  contrast  with 
the  Caucasian  charm  of  the  bride,  her  stately  countenance, 
and  '  amorous-lidded  eyes.' 

"The  Song  is  aptly  illustrated  by  the  attire  of  the 
bride  and  her  companions  ;  it  says :  '  She  shall  be 
brought  unto  the  king  in  raiment  of  needlework  :  the 






virgins  that  be  her  fellows  shall  bear  her  company, 
and  shall  be  brought  unto  thee.'  On  either  side  of  the 
bride  appear  two  damsels,  not  yet  brides.  The  principal 
figures  are  differently  clad,  diverse  in  face  and  form,1  and 
to  some  extent  contrasted  in  character  and  expression. 
Besides  her  robe  the  bride  wears  about  her  head  and 
throat  a  veil  of  tissue  differing  in  its  green  from  that 
of  the  robe,  and  above  her  forehead  rises  an  aigrette  of 
scarlet  enamel  and  gold  that  resembles  in  some  respects 
the  peculiar  head-dress  of  ancient  Egyptian  royalty; 
this  is  set  like  a  coronet  upon  her  hair,  while  advancing 
towards  the  bridegroom,  with  an  action  at  once  graceful 
and  natural,  she,  half  thoughtfully,  half  in  pride  of 
supreme  loveliness,  has  moved  the  tissue  from  her  face 
and  throat.  With  the  same  movement  she  has  thrown 
backwards  a  large  ringlet  of  her  hair,  revealing  the 
softened  dignity  of  her  love-laden  eyes,  as  well  as  her 
face,  which  is  exquisitely  fair  and  fine,  and  has  the  least 
hint  of  blushes  within  the  skin,  as  though  the  heart  of 
the  lady  quickened,  while  we  see  there  is  tenderness  in 

,  her  look,  but  voluptuous  ardour  nowhere. 

"  All  the  four  maids  seem  to  have  been  chanting  a 
nuptial  strain,  while  they  have  moved  rhythmically  with 

j  the  steps  of  the  bride. 

"  Excepting  one  or  two  later  works  of  the  master, 
where  sentiment  of  a  more  exalted  sort,  as  in  Proserpina^ 
inspired  the  designs,  The  Beloved  appears  to  me  to  be 
the  finest  production  of  his  genius.  Of  his  skill,  in  the 
high  artistic  sense,  implying  the  vanquishment  of 
prodigious  difficulties  —  difficulties  the  greater  because 
of  his  imperfect  technical  education — there  cannot  be 
two  opinions  as  to  the  pre-eminence  of  Mr  Rae's 
magnificent  possession.  It  indicates  the  consummation 
of  Rossetti's  powers  in  the  highest  order  of  modern 
art,  and  is  in  perfect  harmony  with  that  poetic  inspiration 


which  is  found  in  every  one  of  his  more  ambitious 
pictures.  This  example  can  only  be  called  Venetian, 
because  of  the  splendid  colouring  which  obtains  in  it. 
Tintoret  produced  works  which  assort  most  fortunately 
with  this  one,  and  his  finely  dramatic  mode  of  designing 
reappears,  so  to  say,  in  The  Beloved,  where  the  intensity 
of  Venetian  art  is  exalted,  if  that  term  be  allowed,  in  a 
modern  strain,  while  its  form,  coloration,  and  chiaroscuro 
are  most  subtly  devised  to  produce  a  whole  which  is 
thoroughly  harmonised,  and  entirely  self-sustained.  Of 
how  few  modern  instances  could  this  be  said  ?  The 
colouring  of  this  picture  supports  the  sentiment  of  the 
design  in  the  happiest  manner,  and  in  its  magnificence 
the  work  agrees  with  the  chastity  of  the  conception. 
There  is  a  nuptial  inspiration  throughout  it,  even  in  the 
deep  red  of  the  blush  roses  the  negress  bears.  The 
technique  is  so  fine  that  it  leaves  nothing  to  be  desired, 
even  in  the  lustrousness  of  the  gold  vase,  in  the  varied 
brilliancy  of  the  robe  of  the  bride,  in  the  subtle  delicacy 
of  the  carnations,  solidly  and  elaborately  modelled  as 
they  are,  and  varied  to  suit  the  nature  of  each  of  the 
figures.  ^.ossetti's  Beloved  is  in  English  art  what 
Spenser's  gorgeous  and  passionate  EpiThaTamium  is  in 
English  verse,  and  if  not  more  rapturous,  it  is  more 
compact  of  sumptuous  elements." 

Any  adequate  attempt  to  review  the  characteristics 
of  Rossetti's  own  wonderful  achievement,  and  his 
influence  on  art  at  large,  would  necessarily  be  lengthy; 
no  brief  note  would  suffice  to  convey  a  true  appreciation 
of  the  originality  and  the  power  of  this  wayward  and 
self-centred  genius.  The  influence  he  exercised  on 
contemporaries  and  successors  was  by  no  means  in- 
considerable, in  spite  of  his  life  having  been  spent 
outside  the  world  of  art  and  letters.  The  position  that 
"he  occupied  in  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood  has 




|  already  been  alluded  to,  and  what  share  was  actually 
|  his  in  their  vivifying  crusade  may  never  be  really  known. 
!  But  it  is  admitted  that  it  was  he  who  had  the  penchant 
for  propaganda  and  proselytising,  that  his  was  the  fiery- 
soul  that  was  the  source  of  so  much  poetic  inspiration  ; 
without  him  the  Brotherhood  as  such  would  probably 
not  have  come  into  being,  and  the  existence  of  the 
Brotherhood  converted  the  sporadic  (and  possibly  futile) 
efforts,  which  the  others  would  doubtless  have  singly 
made  on  their  own  initiative,  into  a  systematic  attempt 
to  introduce  a  healthier  tendency  into  our  national  art, 
an  attempt  which  has  had  the  most  far-reaching  results. 
The  intense  activity  of  to-day,  in  all  branches  of  art,  as 
compared  with  the  lethargy  and  torpidity  of  fifty  years 
ago,  can  be  traced  very  largely  to  the  stand  made  by 
these  young  men  and  their  associates.  But,  besides 
the  effect  that  Rossetti  had  on  art  through  Pre- 
Raphaelism,  and  besides  the  school  of  direct  followers 
that  have  arisen  inspired  by  his  work  (a  group  to  be 
treated  of  later),  there  is  the  influence  of  his  own  strange 
deals  and  his  unique  achievements  to  be  traced  in  the 
work  of  many  and  diverse  artists.  It  would  be  very 
ascinating,  and  at  the  same  time  rather  startling,  to 
:ollow  the  ramifications  of  this  inspiration  among  those 
painters  who  are  far  from  being  of  the  school  of  Rossetti. 
Artists  whose  aims  are  as  far  apart  as  Mr  Whistler  and 
Sir  J.  D.  Linton,  Matthew  Maris  and  George  du  Maurier, 
Vtr  Wilson  Steer  and  Mr  William  Wontner  (these  by 
way  of  example),  have  betrayed  occasionally  touches  of 
nspiration  or  passages  of  work  that,  noted  by  the 
vntelligent  critic,  cause  the  question  to  rise  unbidden 
n  the  mind — would  these  have  occurred  to  the  more 
•ecent  artist  had  Rossetti  never  painted  ?  And  though 
space  will  not  permit  any  expansion  of  this  theme,  it 
nust  be  noted  that  not  only  English  but  Continental 


artists  are  beginning  to  own  the  sway  and  the  fascination 
of  the  work  of  Rossetti  and  his  disciple,  Burne  Jones. 

Turning  to  his  actual  work  it  may  be  said  that, 
materially,  its  keynote  is  splendour,  splendour  of  colour, 
of  conception,  of  mise  en  scene,  coupled  with  grandeur 
and  impressiveness  of  design.  His  essentially  romantic 
spirit  delighted  in  the  exotic  and  the  unique,  and  there 
is  a  sense  of  opulence  in  all  his  work  that  is  almost 
overpowering.  Technically,  of  course  (as  has  been 
already  said),  there  are  shortcomings  in  some  of  his 
pictures ;  his  drawing  is  not  immaculate,  and  his  powers 
of  realisation  were  not  equal  to  his  gift  of  imagination. 
He  was  essentially  a  poet  working  in  pigments,  and  it 
is  evident,  from  his  use  of  the  explanatory  sonnet 
appended  to  so  many  of  his  pictures,  that  he  himself 
was  conscious  of  the  inadequacy  of  pictorial  art  to  convey 
all  that  he  sought  to  express.  But  with  all  shortcomings 
what  a  glorious  achievement  his  is  ! 

Spiritually,  he  was  a  devotee  of  beauty,  and  supreme 
beauty  he  rightly  found  and  fashioned  in  the  ideal  faces 
that  he  painted  so  well.  But  the  distinction  of  Rossetti's 
work  lies  in  the  fact  that  he  conceived  and  embodied 
not  beauty  alone,  but  that  element  of  strangeness  in 
beauty  which  Mr  Walter  Pater  rightly  discerned  as  the 
inmost  spirit  of  romantic  art.  It  has  been  said  that  he 
always  depicted  one  face,  and  one  only,  but  this  has 
more  than  once  been  shown  to  be  erroneous.  At  the 
same  time,  he  has  admittedly  invested  many  of  the 
faces  he  painted  (especially  in  his  later  days)  with  the 
characteristics  of  a  type  of  beauty  that  was  a  creation 
of  his  own ;  in  other  words,  he  originated  a  new  ideal 
loveliness,  a  type  that  appeals  at  once  to  the  beholder's 
sensuous  joy  in  beauty  and  his  intellectual  apprehension 
of  a  soul  behind  the  mask.  Lovely  faces  he  depicted, 
overshadowed  by  a  cloud  of  dusky  hair,  "  sweet  carved 




lips  for  a  conqueror's  kiss,"  all  the  body's  beauty  that  his 
artist's  mind  conceived  he  strove  to  depict,  and  by  and 
through  this  beauty  all  the  loveliness  of  soul  that  his 
poet's  heart  could  dream  of.  The  sweetness  of  love,  the 
glamour  of  mysteries  unknown,  the  brooding  aspect  of 
passion,  the  clear  and  placid  joy  of  living,  are  all  to  be 
found  in  the  limpid  depths  of  his  women's  eyes — such 
wonderful  eyes  as  no  other  artist  has  ever  painted,  from 
the  clear  grey  unshadowed  ones,  that  seem  to  swim  in 
the  head  of  The  Bride,  to  the  dusky  orbs  that  burn  in 
the  face  of  Astarte,  "  in  Venus'  eyes  the  gaze  of 

There  are  critics,  of  course,  to  whom  the  type  of 
beauty  he  chose  is  repellent,  and  there  are  pictures  of 
his  in  which  the  "  lovely  large  arms  and  the  neck  like 
a  tower,"  are  exaggerated  to  an  unacceptable  degree, 
as  well  as  the  facial  characteristics  that  have  been  alluded 
to ;  but,  while  one  recognises  the  truth  of  some  adverse 
criticism,  one  is  still  justified  in  acclaiming  the  author 
of  so  long  a  series  of  works,  marked  by  such  marvellous 
glory  of  colour,  intensely  vivid  feeling,  and  opulence 
of  beauty,  as  essentially  and  truly  an  artist  of  supreme 








THE  remaining  members  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brother- 
hood, as  originally  constituted,  were  Thomas  Woolner, 
F.  G.  Stephens  (at  that  time  an  art  student),  James 
Collinson,  and  W.  M.  Rossetti.  The  latter,  not  being 
a  painter,  acted  as  a  sort  of  secretary  of  the  coterie,  and 
was  for  some  years  almost  the  only  writer  who  ventured 
to  uphold  the  principles  of  the  fraternity.  This  he  did 
in  the  Critic  and  the  Spectator  ;  and  it  was,  doubtless, 
largely  due  to  his  championship,  as  well  as  to  the 
advocacy  of  John  Ruskin,  that  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
influence  extended  far  beyond  the  immediate  circle  of 
the  original  group.  F.  G.  Stephens,  well  equipped  by 
reading  and  temperament,  also  turned  his  attention  to 
the  literature  of  art,  abandoning  its  practice ;  and  though 
his  life's  work,  as  he  truly  says,  has  been  mostly  with 
the  pen,  it  would  have  been  interesting  to  include  among 
the  illustrations  of  this  book  an  example  of  his  pictorial 
art,  and  it  is  a  matter  for  regret  that  this  was  found 
impossible.  The  work  of  Woolner,  the  sculptor,  being 
in  another  medium,  is  not  treated  of  here ;  and  it  must 


be   admitted    that    the    achievement  of  Collinson   is   not 
particularly  noteworthy.      This   artist's   most   remarkable 
work  is   The  Renunciation  of  St  Elizabeth  of  Hungary, 
and  this,  which  is  a  praiseworthy  picture,  was  more  or 
less  of  a  spasmodic  effort,  his   usual   style  being  chiefly 
domestic   art ;   and   he    did    not   make    the    mark    which 
in  the  early  days  of  the   movement   his   colleagues  had 
loped  for,  although  another  picture  of  his,  The  Charity 
Debut,    which   was    painted    in     1848,    before    his 
mnection  with  the  Brotherhood,  attracted  some  attention, 
[odest  and  retiring  in  his  disposition,  his  work  was  un- 
ibitious,    and    on    becoming    a    Roman     Catholic    he 
fancied    that   it   was    incumbent    on    him    to   resign    his 
lembership     of     the     society.       The    connection    thus 
;rminated  was  not  re-established ;  and  though  he  lived 
id  painted  till  the  spring  of  1881,   he  passes  out  of 
>ur  story. 

When  Walter  Howell  Deverell  died,  in  1854,  at  the 
early  age  of  twenty-six,  he  was  not  only  a  loss  to  the 
circle  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood,  but  also  to  the 
world  of  art  at  large,  for  had  he  lived  a  few  years  longer 
he  would  without  doubt  have  distinguished  himself.  He 
was  an  intimate  of  Dante  Rossetti,  who  nominated  him 
for  the  place  in  the  fraternity  left  vacant  by  the  secession 
of  Collinson,  and  Deverell  more  than  repaid  this  act  of 
friendship  by  being  the  means  of  introducing  Rossetti 
to  Miss  Siddal,  who  was  afterwards  his  wife.  This  lady 
was  sitting  at  the  time  to  Deverell  as  the  model  for  the 
head  of  the  disguised  Viola  in  the  picture  reproduced 
in  this  volume  —  how  often  and  how  lovingly  Rossetti 
depicted  her  strangely-beautiful  face  as  Beatrice,  or  in 
some  other  character,  there  is  no  need  to  say  here.  This 
large  picture  is  a  scene  from  Twelfth  Night,  Act  II.,  Sc.  4. 
The  Duke,  the  central  figure  of  the  composition,  is  a 
strong  piece  of  painting :  he  is  depicted  as  a  love-sick 


man,  wishing  to  be  entertained  by  the  songs  and  music 
of  his  surrounding  friends  and  attendants,  and  yet,  withal, 
he  cannot  hide  the  trouble  which  is  uppermost  in  his 
mind — his  unrequited  love  for  Olivia.  On  his  right  is 
seated  Viola,  disguised  as  a  boy ;  and  to  the  left  the 
clown  is  singing  with  earnestness,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
with  such  an  air  of  self-satisfaction  as  denotes  the  high 
value  he  sets  on  his  own  abilities.  This  is  a  picture 
which  gives  evidence  of  thought  and  power;  but  the 
painter  was  not  to  live  long  enough  to  show  the  fruit  of 
his  promise.  Artistic,  clever,  genial,  remarkably  good- 
looking,  fortune  in  other  respects  was  unkind  to  him. 
In  1853  the  death  of  his  father,  who  was  secretary  to 
the  Schools  of  Design  (now  enlarged  into  the  Science 
and  Art  Department),  threw  additional  responsibility  on 
to  his  shoulders,  and  the  ill-health  which  was  to  cause 
his  death  the  year  after  attacked  him.  Still,  in  spite 
of  all,  he  was  full  of  courage,  and  continued  to  paint, 
his  last  picture  being  The  Doctors  Last  Visit — a  physician 
trying  to  explain  to  the  assembled  family  of  a  sick  man 
that  there  is  no  hope.  Other  works  by  him  were  A  Lady 
with  a  Bird-cage^  formerly  in  the  Leathart  collection, 
and  &  Scene  from  "As  You  Like  It"  on  which  Rossetti 
worked  after  the  artist's  death :  and  in  these,  as  in  all, 
he  painted  closely  from  Nature,  and  displayed  an 
exquisite  sense  of  simplicity  and  grace. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  pictorial  work  accomplished 
by  the  actual  members  of  the  Brotherhood,  other  than 
the  three  leaders,  was  a  negligeable  quantity.  In  itself, 
it  was  not  of  great  importance  as  a  practical  exposition 
of  their  creed,  but  it  was  desirable,  in  the  interests  of 
completeness  and  accuracy,  that  a  brief  account  of  it 
should  be  included  here,  before  turning  to  the  painters 
who  did  work  based  on  Pre-Raphaelite  principles,  though 
they  were  not  actually  members  of  the  brief-lived 


Brotherhood.  How  brief  was  the  actual  life  of  the 
Brotherhood^  as  originally  conceived  and  inaugurated, 
may  be  judged  from  Mr  W.  M.  Rossetti's  statement  that 
the  fraternity,  founded  in  the  autumn  of  1848,  may  be 
regarded  as  sinking  into  desuetude  from  the  early  part  of 
1851,  if  considered  as  a  practical  working  organisation; 
how  enduring  and  far-reaching  the  results  of  their  crusade 
(which  by  no  means  ceased  when  their  periodic  meetings 
became  obsolete),  will  be  seen  from  the  following  pages. 



HAVING  considered  the  aims  and  the  work  of  the  men 
who  were  officially,  if  the  term  may  be  permitted,  of 
the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood,  the  following  pages  must 
be  devoted  to  an  account,  however  brief,  of  the  achievement 
of  the  painters  who  have  been  directly  or  indirectly 
influenced  by  the  principles  or  the  practice  of  the 
members  of  the  Brotherhood.  It  has  already  been 
pointed  out  that  the  term  Pre-Raphaelite  has  been  very 
loosely  used  by  those  who  talk  the  jargon  of  art  without  a 
knowledge  of  the  true  meaning  of  the  words  they 
employ ;  and  that  the  expression  has  been  applied 
indiscriminately  to  two  classes  of  work.  As  has  been 
noted,  it  has  been  employed  to  describe  the  pictures 
painted  with  unsparing  effort  after  truth  in  every  way — 
honest  endeavours  after  sincerity  which  are  really  and 
truly  Pre-Raphaelite,  as  the  inventors  of  the  word  under- 
stood it ;  and  it  has  been  used  (and  this  is  where 
confusion  has  arisen)  to  characterise  every  picture  which 
showed  in  conception  or  in  feeling  that  the  painter  had 
been  influenced  by  the  later  work  of  Dante  Rossetti,  or 
of  his  pupil,  Edward  Burne-Jones ;  and  the  word  has  so 
far  passed  into  the  language  with  this  double  meaning 
that  it  would  be  vain  to  attempt  to  prevent  its  use  in  the 




twofold  way.     The  only  thing  to  be  done  is  to  accept  it 
frankly,  and  to  include   in  a  book  like  this  not  only  the 
work   of  Windus    and    Burton,    entirely    and    absolutely 
Pre-Raphaelite,    but    also    the     productions    of    Simeon 
Solomon,  for  example,  which  never  were  Pre-Raphaelite 
in  the  true  sense  of  the  word   (work  less  realistic  never 
came   from    the   easel  of  a   painter),  but   which   is    Pre- 
Raphaelite   in   the  sense  of   showing,   in  a  very   marked 
legree,  an  inspiration  akin  to  that  of  Rossetti. 
The  three  distinguished  artists  who  are  here  grouped 
>gether  have  been   considered   in   one  chapter  because 
le  observer    may    mark    in    their    work    the  present- 
lent     of    the     romantic     spirit    as     affecting     different 
linds.     Each  has  painted  ideal  and  imaginative  pictures 
-that  is  the  common  ground  on    which   they   may  be 
;ated  of;  the  differences  are  great  and  noteworthy.     To 
Lossetti  the  world  of  romance,  the  land  of  dreams  and 
visions,  was   spiritual  or   sensuous  or  tragic  by  turns  or 
[together :   his  magnificent  and  many-sided  imagination 
>uld  give  us  the  pure  loveliness  of  a  Beata  Beatrix,  or 
the  splendid  "  body's  beauty,"  of  La  Bella  Mano,  or  the 
haunting  pity  of  the  Donna  della  Finestra^  or  the  tragedy 
of  Found.     His  was  the  master-mind  ;  but  as  regards  the 
work    of    the   three    painters    whose    names    head    this 
chapter  we   may  see  one  dominant    idea    in    each    case, 
Frederick  Sandys  strikes  a  note  that  Rossetti  never  did 
— the  Wagnerian  note  of  the  tragedy  of  heroes,  almost 
superhuman,    elemental ;    Simeon     Solomon    shows    us, 
maybe    in    allegory,   the    brooding  aspect  of  passion — a 
slumbrous  yet  ecstatic  fervour  that  is  not  of  the  Western 
world,   less  of  the  mind  than  Sandys,  less  of  the  spirit 
than   George  Wilson  ;    while  the  work  of  this  last  artist 
displays  a  charm    that   is   purely    spiritual,    a    charm    as 
dissociated    from    any   earthly  basis    and    any    attraction 
of  bodily    beauty   as    is    the    source  of  so   much  of  his 

icii  an  one 
be  one  of 
o  his  life- 


inspiration — the  poetry  of  Shelley.  Of  course,  each  of 
these  artists,  being  an  artist,  expresses  his  ideal  in  terms 
of  physical  beauty,  if  the  expression  may  be  used,  but 
with  neither  is  mere  physical  loveliness  the  end  and 
aim  of  his  endeavours. 

There  is  at  present  a  tendency  among  many  of  the 
gentlemen  who  pass  as  art  critics  to  announce  every  now 
and  again,  with  a  blare  of  trumpets  and  a  banging  of 
cymbals,  the  discovery  of  a  hitherto  unknown  artist. 
He  may  be  either  a  very  young  man  who  endeavours 
to  compel  by  novelty  or  audacity  the  reputation  that 
years  of  solid  achievement  may  not  bring  (such  an  one 
confounding  fame  and  notoriety),  or  he  may 
the  seniors  in  the  arts  who  has  elected  to  do 
work  quietly  and  unostentatiously,  without  any  glare  of 
self-advertisement  or  any  chorus  of  puff  from  a  clique ; 
in  either  case,  it  is  his  misfortune  to  be  " discovered" 
occasionally,  and  no  artist  has  suffered  more  from  such 
"  discovery  "  than  Frederick  Sandys.  To  those  art  lovers 
who  are  not  allured  by  meretricious  trickery  or  awed  by 
pictorial  fecundity,  the  occasional  work  of  this  great 
painter  has  always  given  pleasure.  His  pictures  have 
been  eagerly  anticipated,  greeted  with  admiration,  and 
lovingly  remembered  ;  but,  at  the  same  time,  it  is  perfectly 
true  that  he  has  never  been  a  popular  artist,  and  that 
"  the  man  in  the  street "  knows  him  not. 

It  has  been  stated  more  than  once  that  Sandys  was  a 
pupil  of  George  Richmond  and  Samuel  Lawrence  (upon 
whose  style  of  chalk  drawing  he  is  supposed  to  have 
based  his  own),  while  it  is  also  said  that  he  attended  the 
Royal  Academy  Schools  ;  but  these  assertions  are  incorrect, 
and,  unlike  some  of  the  other  Pre-Raphaelite  artists,  he 
owes  nothing  to  the  Academy  for  his  artistic  training  and 
development.  Born  in  1832,  at  Norwich,  his  earliest 
teaching  was  derived  from  his  father,  himself  a  painter; 




and  the  studies  executed  in  his  days  of  pupilage  which 
still  exist  show  that,  while  working  along  independent 
lines,  he  tended  to  the  same  goal  as  Madox  Brown  and 
Holman  Hunt.  This  tendency  to  searching  care  in 
draughtsmanship  and  absolute  sincerity  of  presentment 
was,  no  doubt,  confirmed  by  his  acquaintance  with 
Rossetti,  the  master-spirit  of  the  group.  It  was  in  1857 
that  Sandys  first  called  on  Rossetti,  taking  the  opportunity 
to  obtain  a  mental  likeness  of  him,  afterwards  used  in 
that  curious  caricature  The  Nightmare.  The  story  of 
this  is  so  well  known  that  it  need  not  be  told  again  ; 
suffice  it  to  say  that  the  acquaintance  developed  into 
friendship,  and  in  1860  the  two  artists  were  residing 
under  the  same  roof.  At  first  Sandys  devoted  himself 
mainly  to  drawing  for  woodcuts  for  Once  a  Week  and 
other  periodical  publications,  drawings  in  many  cases 
so  excellently  translated  by  the  engraver  that  the  woodcuts 
are  treasures  to  be  hoarded  ;  but  very  shortly  the  artist 
commenced  that  lovely  series  of  ideal  pictures  by  which 
his  fame  is  assured.  One  at  least  of  these  paintings, 
The  Valkyrie,  is  a  translation  from  the  black-and-white 
of  a  woodcut  (flarald  Harfagr)  into  colour,  and  the 
beauty  of  this  canvas  and  the  richness  of  the  colour  in 
the  flowers  and  the  robe  of  the  stately  figure  standing  in 
the  sunset  glow  and  questioning  the  sacred  raven  make 
one  wish  that  such  drawings  as  Rosamund,  Queen  of  the 
Lombards,  and  the  splendid  conception  that  illustrates 
Christina  Rossetti's  poem  Amor  Mundi  had  also  been 
repeated  as  pictures.  Others,  such  as  Danae  in  the 
Brazen  Chamber,  Manoli,  and  especially  The  Old  Chartist, 
would  have  made  canvases  that  would  have  been  delightful 
to  look  upon,  strong  and  restrained,  full  of  charm  and 
decorative  beauty.  The  qualities  of  grandeur  of  con- 
ception and  strength  of  execution  which  are  apparent 
in  these  woodcuts  are  evident  throughout  the  artist's 


work  in  the  nobler  medium — pictures,  such  as  Vivien, 
Morgan  le  Fay,  and  Medea,  and  others  which  might  be 
named,  of  subjects  taken  from  the  fields  of  old  romance. 

It  may  be  that  it  is  to  Rossetti's  influence,  or,  at  any 
rate,  to  his  example,  that  we  owe  these  and  similar 
pictures  of  chivalric  and  classic  ideal.  Rossetti's  influence 
may  perhaps  also  be  traced  in  some  cases  in  the  type  of 
female  beauty  chosen  by  the  artist,  and  in  the  sumptuous 
colour  of  the  completed  work ;  but  this  inspiration  did 
not  go  further,  for  it  is  to  Sandys  himself,  technically  a 
much  more  accomplished  artist  than  his  friend,  that  we 
owe  the  note  of  lofty  tragedy  that  is  the  dominant  theme 
in  his  art.  This  individual  note  is  very  remarkable. 
The  artist  choses  as  a  subject  Cassandra  cowing  with  her 
scathing  words  of  scorn  the  shrinking  Helen,  or  the 
terrible  agony  of  Medea,  rather  than  the  neo-Hellenic 
futilities  that  now  pass  muster  as  classic  art ;  and  when 
he  turns  to  subjects  from  the  Arthurian  cycle  or  the 
Scandinavian  Sagas,  we  find  him,  if  possible,  still  more  at 
home.  His  spirit  is  essentially  attuned  to  that  of  Gothic 
romance,  while  Rossetti's  art  gives  evidence  everywhere  of 
his  Italian  blood.  The  sensuous  medievalism,  or  the 
spiritual  purity  of  Rossetti's  triumphs,  are  alien  to  our 
northern  climes ;  we  know  their  beauty,  we  feel  their 
charm,  but  they  are  exotic :  the  sombre  and  tragic 
intensity  of  Sandys'  work,  and  the  stern,  passionate 
beauty  of  his  conceptions  show  an  inspiration  of  sterner 
mould,  and  can  only  be  compared  to  the  grandeur  and 
the  brooding  horror  of  the  Sagas  of  the  North.  The 
calm,  scornful  loveliness  of  Vivien  (reproduced  in  these 
pages),  the  splendour  of  the  beauty  depicted,  and  the 
masterly  colour  and  technique  of  the  painting,  combine 
to  make  it  a  very  noteworthy  picture ;  but  it  was 
succeeded  by  two  other  canvases,  Morgan  le  Fay  and 
Medea,  in  which  the  tragic  note  is  more  evident.  Morgan 



le  Fay  was  the  sister  of  King  Arthur,  who,  envying  the 
love  he  inspired,  and  hating  the  guileless  honesty  of  his 
soul,  planned,  with  the  aid  of  sorcery,  many  attempts  on 
his  life  and  happiness.  The  picture  shows  her,  worn  with 
the  strength  of  her  own  evil  passions,  standing  near  the 
loom  on  which  she  has  woven  a  mantle  designed  for 
Arthur — a  Nessus'  shirt  which  will  destroy  the  wearer — 
and  gazing  at  it  by  the  light  of  a  lamp,  her  face  lit  with 
the  anticipation  of  her  hateful  triumph.  Beauty  distorted 
with  passion,  a  soul  whelmed  in  malice — such  is  the 
picture.  Medea  has  been  thus  described  :  "  A  half-length 
of  the  wife  of  Jason,  her  cheeks  pale  and  thin,  and  her 
eyes  wild  with  anguish  ;  the  white  drapery  and  the  white 
countenance  alike  lit  up  with  weird  illumination  by  the 
flames  that  issue  from  a  brazier  set  on  a  marble  slab  in 
front,  upon  which  lie  instruments  of  enchantment — 
mysterious  runes,  pagan  images,  bright-eyed  toads,  and 
a  shell  filled  with  clotted  human  blood.  With  one  hand 
she  pours  poison  into  the  brazier  from  a  strangely-shaped 
vessel  of  glass,  the  ringers  of  the  other  clutch  wildly  at 
the  necklace  of  red  coral  and  blue  beads  that  is  coiled 
round  her  neck  ;  and  behind,  on  the  dark  background, 
are  wrought  symbolic  figures  of  the  Golden  Fleece  and 
the  ship  Argo,  and  all  the  tragic  things  of  Medea's  life." 
Sandys  has  in  later  years  abandoned  to  some  extent  his 
work  in  oils,  and  has  practised  in  crayons,  producing  in 
this  medium  many  rich  and  beautiful  designs  ;  but  in 
all  his  work,  in  monochrome  or  in  colours,  this  element 
of  passion  and  of  tragedy  is  conspicuous  :  he  choses 
deliberately  sternness  rather  than  tenderness,  power  rather 
than  softness.  The  scornful  petulance  of  Proud  Maisie 
as  she  listens  to  the  prophecy  of  the  bird  ;  the  poignant 
longing  of  Penelope  ;  the  intense  horror  of  Cassandra, 
voicing  the  awful  devastation  of  the  future  of  Troy,  and 
anguished  beyond  expression  at  the  heedless  aspect  of 


those  who  hear — such  conceptions  he  depicts  with  vigour 
and  strength  ;  while,  from  beginning  to  end  of  his 
achievement  (and  the  end  is  not  yet,  we  hope),  he  shows 
himself,  as  Rossetti  said,  "  the  greatest  of  living  draughts- 
men " ;  and  his  versatile  technical  accomplishments, 
united  with  such  imaginative  fire  and  spontaneity, 
proclaiming  him  one  of  the  greatest  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
painters,  not  embarrassed,  as  was  Rossetti,  by  imperfect 
training  in  his  craft,  and  more  gifted  with  original  insight 
and  with  inspiration  than  was  Millais. 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  Frederick  Sandys  is  also 
a  portrait  painter — a  painter  of  absolute  and  searching 
likenesses,  such  as  place  the  sitter  before  the  spectator 
with  entire  actuality.  His  oil  paintings  of  Mrs  Anderson 
Rose  and  Mrs  Lewis  are  marvellous  in  their  life-like 
fidelity,  and  may  be  said  to  be  unapproached  in  this 
country  since  the  days  of  Holbein  ;  while  such  chalk 
drawings  as  the  portraits  of  Mrs  Jean  Palmer,  Lord 
Battersea,  Matthew  Arnold,  John  Richard  Green,  Dean 
Church,  and  Lord  Tennyson  (the  three  latter  being  items 
in  a  series  of  likenesses  of  literary  men  commissioned  by 
Messrs  Macmillan)  reveal  in  their  vigour  and  dignity  the 
hand  of  the  master.  Colour,  detail,  character — all  are 
here  ;  and  in  these,  as  in  the  imaginative  works  spoken 
of  before,  we  see  the  apotheosis  of  Gothic  art — Gothic, 
that  is,  as  contrasted  both  with  the  true  and  unconven- 
tional landscape  school,  which  is  a  comparatively  modern 
product,  and  with  the  neo-classicisms,  obvious  or  masked, 
that  do  duty  as  the  greater  part  of  art  in  England  to-day. 
Whether  he  re-embodies  for  us  some  old  legend,  or 
whether  he  shows,  as  in  his  portraits,  the  presentments  of 
men  as  they  are,  he  is  an  unflinching  realist ;  a  master  of 
beauty,  he  deals  not  in  abstractions,  but  in  actualities  ; 
and  if  Ford  Madox  Brown  was  the  modern  representative 
of  Holbein,  assuredly  Frederick  Sandys  is  the  successor 


of  Diirer — the  successor  and  not  the  copyist :  for  it  is 
similarity  due  to  sympathy,  and  not  to  imitation  ;  to  the 
same  grim,  yet  delicate  fancy ;  the  same  catholic  apprecia- 
tion and  assimilation  of  the  good  that  has  gone  before  ; 
the  same  originality,  directness,  and  intensity,  both  of 
thought  and  expression.  This  applies  both  to  the  superb 
poetical  work  and  to  the  portraits  that  he  has  painted. 
In  the  former  we  find  dramatic  conception  allied  to 
masterful  technique,  the  romantic  ideal  expressed  in 
terms  of  the  severest  draughtsmanship  ;  in  the  latter  we 
see  the  very  men  and  women  who  sat  to  him,  not,  as  is 
the  fashion  to-day,  a  beautiful  mask  of  the  sitter,  nor, 
as  Mr  Watts  sometimes  gives  us,  a  translation  of  the 
subject's  mind  rather  than  an  actual  likeness,  but  a  true, 
strong,  and  expressive  portrait,  excellent  in  modelling 
and  in  drawing — the  actual  presentment  of  a  human 

Simeon  Solomon,  who  was  born  in  1841,  came  of  an 
artistic  stock,  his  brother  Abraham  being  a  painter  of 
sufficient  distinction  to  obtain  the  Associateship  of  the 
Royal  Academy  ;  while  his  sister  Rebeka  also  painted 
figure  subjects,  and  attracted  notice  by  several  exhibited 
works,  one  of  the  best  representing  Peg  Woffmgton's 
visit  to  Triplet  and  his  starving  family,  as  related  by 
Charles  Reade.  Abraham  Solomon's  pictures  show  little 
or  none  of  the  spirit  that  animates  his  younger  brother's 
work,  the  best  known  being  Waiting  for  the  Verdict — a 
very  popular  subject,  representing  with  truth  and  pathos 
the  family  of  a  prisoner  on  trial.  Simeon  Solomon,  like 
Frederick  Sandys,  was  not  a  student  at  the  Academy 
schools ;  and  though  he  received  some  instruction,  as  was 
natural,  from  his  brother,  and  some  at  Legh's  Art  School, 
in  Newman  Street,  his  genius  was  mainly  self-taught. 
Like  Rossetti,  he  was  somewhat  impatient  of  the  disci- 
pline of  the  schools,  for  his  fancies  demanded  embodiment, 


and,  naturally  enough,  he  preferred  creative  work  to  the 
routine  imposed  upon  students.  It  was  early  in  life  that 
he  attracted  the  attention  of  art  lovers,  his  picture  of 
Moses,  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1861,  exciting 
the  favourable  notice  of  Thackeray,  who  praised  it  in  one 
of  his  "  Roundabout  Papers  "  ;  and  it  was  shortly  after, 
in  the  year  1864,  that  he  painted  his  most  important 
work,  Habet,  which  the  writer  has  vainly  endeavoured  to 
trace.  In  this  picture,  inspired  by  Whyte  Melville's 
novel,  "The  Gladiators,"  he  concerned  himself  little, 
perhaps,  with  archaeological  niceties,  but  he  gave  ex- 
pression to  the  varying  play  of  emotion  and  character  in 
the  faces  of  a  number  of  Roman  ladies  who  are  gazing 
from  the  gallery  into  the  arena,  where  a  gladiator,  having 
succumbed  to  his  opponent,  is  to  lose  his  life — the  victim 
of  their  merciless  whim.  But  this  is  scarcely  an  example 
of  the  artist's  typical  work,  which  dealt  more  with 
abstractions,  with  symbols,  and  not  with  actualities.  His 
wayward  genius  may  be  said  to  be  akin  to  that  of  the 
master  mystic  Blake,  but  it  was  of  a  softer,  gentler  kind, 
and  with  less  riotous  exuberance  of  vision.  The  charming 
little  Love  in  Autumn  is  an  exquisite  example  of  his 
allegory.  The  shuddering  figure  and  woful  face  of  the 
god  tell  their  own  pathetic  tale,  as,  buffeted  by  the  chilly 
winds  that  mark  the  coming  of  winter  and  death,  his 
radiant  plumes  bedraggled  and  useless,  he  wanders  along 
the  rocky  path  strewn  with  the  fallen  leaves  that  portend 
decay.  The  colour,  rich  but  subdued,  accords  well  with 
the  sentiment  of  the  picture,  which,  so  far  as  it  goes,  is 
eminently  satisfying  :  we  must  not  ask  virile  presentments 
of  intense  emotion  from  the  genius  of  a  painter  who  is 
a  dreamer  of  dreams,  whose  art  is  essentially  mystic  and 
exotic.  Amor  Sacramentum  and  Dawn  are  similar 
allegorical  compositions ;  and  the  sensuous  fervour  of 
expression  that  marks  such  pictures  as  the  beautiful 






Priest  of  an  Eastern  Church  and  Greek  High  Priest  is 
thoroughly  typical  of  the  artist's  poetic  work. 

Allusion  should  be  made  here  to  his  chalk  drawings, 
some  slight,  but  many  carried  so  far  as  to  rank  with  the 
finished  pictures  in  the  more  lasting  mediums,  as  was 
done  by  Rossetti,  whose  work  evidently  appealed  strongly 
to  Simeon  Solomon's  mind  ;  and  the  beautiful  series  of 
pencil  drawings,  from  the  book  of  Ruth  and  the  Song  of 
Songs,  must  not  pass  unnoticed.  The  artist  was  evidently 
strongly  attracted  by  the  intensity  of  feeling  displayed  in 
the  latter  poem  ;  his  mind  was  attuned  both  to  its  music 
and  its  mystic  significance,  and  the  drawings  by  which  he 
has  illustrated  it  are  full  of  the  most  exquisite  beauty  and 
the  most  subtle  charm.  Original  in  the  extreme,  they  are 
thoroughly  in  accord  with  the  great  "  Song,"  and  Solomon 
shows  in  these,  as  in  the  pictures  before  spoken  of,  that,  if 
not  a  great  painter,  he  is  certainly  an  artist  of  very  distinct 
poetic  charm,  and  of  much  individuality. 

It  may  be  that  exception  could  be  taken  to  the  inclusion 
of  George  Wilson  in  an  account  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
painters,  and  it  is  true  that  he  was  neither  a  member  nor 
an  associate  of  the  group ;  but  it  must  be  admitted  that 
the  same  spirit  was  there — he  was  as  little  content  as  they 
to  adopt  the  routine  and  the  conventions  of  picture  making. 
Love  of  Nature  and  reverence  for  her  was  evident  in  every- 
thing that  he  did ;  and  the  same  reaction  against  a  mere 
display  of  skilful  technique,  the  same  impatience  of  the 
attempt  to  formulate  rules  by  which  the  production  of 
masterpieces  could  be  ensured,  and  the  same  honest 
endeavour  to  be  individual,  to  paint  good  pictures,  and 
paint  them  in  the  best  possible  way,  mark  him  as  being  in 
sympathy  with  the  aims  of  the  earlier  English  Pre- 
Raphaelites.  He  sought  his  own  path,  he  aimed  at  his 
own  goal ;  and,  undeterred  by  his  chronic  ill-health,  and 
unmoved  by  the  damnation  of  faint -praise  bestowed  upon 


i  of  long  grass  and  weeds  and  flowers."  Such  landscapes 
are  fit  settings  for  the  beautiful  visions  of  old.  Dryads 
land  Oreads  would  seem  to  haunt  such  mellow  valleys; 
and  the  highest  manifestations  of  Wilson's  genius  are 
those  works  in  which  he  employs  a  delightful  poetic 
landscape  as  a  background  for  some  ideal  figure.  Two 
very  typical  and  lovely  examples  are  the  magnificent 
vision  of  Asia,  from  Shelley's  "  Prometheus  Unbound," 
and  the  equally  fine  Alastor,  inspired  by  the  same  poet's 
work.  The  last  picture  has  been  thus  described  :  "  The 
Alastor^  exhibited  many  years  ago  at  the  Academy, 
represents  the  Poet  of  Shelley's  poem  as  he  comes  to 
the  lonely  spot  in  the  woods  where  he  is  to  die  at 
moonrise.  He  puts  aside  the  branches  of  the  thicket, 
through  which  he  has  to  force  his  way,  with  his  right 
hand,  peering  through  them  with  wistful,  melancholy 
eyes,  while  with  his  left  he  presses  his  scanty  drapery  to 
his  breast,  as  though  his  heart  itself  were  a  wound.  The 
last  faint  afterglow  of  sunset  is  seen  through  the  trees 
above  his  head,  and  a  single  white  moth,  disturbed  by  his 
coming,  flutters  away  by  his  left  shoulder.  A  few 
withered  leaves,  whose  brown  tints  are  of  great  value  in 
the  scheme  of  colour,  mark  the  time  as  late  autumn. 
The  likeness  of  the  poet's  face  to  the  well-known  portrait 
of  Shelley  will  be  evident  to  everyone.  In  this  exquisite 
picture  Wilson  has  embodied  the  very  spirit  of  Shelley's 
poem — the  spirit  of  solitude.  It  is  genius  making  its 
way  alone  through  the  wilderness  of  the  world.  This  is 
one  of  the  most  perfectly  finished  of  his  pictures.  The 
figure  is  a  masterpiece  of  expression ;  and  the  lovely 
branch  drawing  is  at  once  true  to  Nature  and  subtly 
composed ;  as  a  piece  of  rich  and  delicate  colour,  it  is 
beyond  praise ;  and  the  whole  has  a  haunting  intensity, 
yet  is  full  of  that  decorative  quality  which  runs  like  music 
through  all  this  painter's  work." 


One  can  but  wish  that  the  large  picture  to  illustrate 
Keats'  "  La  Belle  Dame  sans  Merci "  had  been  carried 
to  completion.  The  mystic  atmosphere  of  the  poem,  the 
dim  land  of  fantasy,  lit  by  the  light  that  never  was  on  sea 
or  land  :  what  artist  could  have  rendered  these  for  us 
with  half  the  sympathetic  power  of  Wilson  ?  But, 
diffident  of  his  own  work,  and  impatient  of  some  little 
lack  of  success  in  attaining  his  ideal,  he  destroyed  the 
canvas.  It  was  this  constant  seeking  after  further 
perfection,  a  dissatisfaction  with  what  had  already  been 
achieved,  that  caused  some  of  the  blemishes  in  his 
pictures — faults  of  drawing,  for  instance,  and  a  certain 
lack  of  freedom,  produced  by  working  and  re-working  in 
an  attempt  to  get  the  exact  pose  of  the  figure,  the  precise 
gesture  which  would  best  express  the  ideal  he  had  before 
him.  That  he  was  really  a  fine  and  reverent  draughtsman 
of  the  figure  is  evident  from  the  preliminary  studies  for 
his  pictures ;  and  it  is  a  great  pity  that  his  strenuous 
endeavours  after  a  more  perfect  accomplishment  should 
have  resulted  (as  it  must  be  admitted  that  they  some- 
times did)  in  some  slight  lack  of  spontaneity. 

In  conclusion,  it  may  be  again  noted  that  throughout 
the  work  of  George  Wilson  the  atmosphere  is  essentially 
ethereal.  The  rare  air  is  that  of  a  poet's  world,  the  sun- 
bathed Arcadia  of  nymph  and  faun,  the  mystic  land  of 
faerie  ;  but  the  air  is  the  open  air,  and  not  the  perfumed 
incense-laden  breeze,  that  haunts  the  mind  when  one 
thinks  of  Rossetti's  superb  conceptions,  or  Solomon's 
mystically  sensuous  visions.  He  dreamed  of  beauty,  and 
he  painted  poems  because  he  lived  in  them  ;  and  though 
he  may  not  have  been  a  painter  of  the  highest  rank, 
though  strength  may  not  be  the  keynote  of  his  art,  the 
world  would  have  been  the  poorer  lacking  his  exquisite 




IT  seems  to  be  the  fate  of  many  a  painter,  if  he  has 
not  the  faculty  of  self-advertisement,  to  be  ignored 
*ven  by  those  who  might  be  supposed  to  know  and  to 
:are  about  the  only  genuine  art — the  art  which  is 
ndividual  and  spontaneous.  How  few  people,  in  spite 
}f  the  recent  revival  of  interest  in  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
irtists,  know  the  work  of  Arthur  Hughes ;  and  yet  he  is 
i>ne  of  the  most  sincere  and  delightful  of  the  painters 
vho  work  in  England  to-day.  Too  retiring  in  his 
disposition,  he  has  been  content  to  work  quietly,  while 
irtists  with  not  one-half  his  charm  and  ability  have  risen 
o  popular  success  ;  and  though  one  may  sympathise 
vith  an  artist  whose  mood  of  mind  and  work  is  so  little 
self-assertive,  one  sympathises  also  with  his  hard  fortune 
n  lacking  the  meed  of  attention  and  praise  that  surely 
should  be  his.  Born  in  1830,  he  was  quite  a  lad  in  1848 
it  the  foundation  of  the  Brotherhood,  and  was  never  an 
ictual  member ;  but  being  then  and  later  intimately 
tssociated  with  Millais,  the  Rossettis,  Collins,  Morris,  and 
>thers  of  the  group,  he  became  imbued  with  the  same 
pirit,  and  he  has  ever  since  been  one  of  the  most 
consistent  of  their  disciples.  His  beautiful  Ophelia, 
'phowing  the  forlorn  maiden  sitting  distraught  beside  the 


fateful  brook,  is  original  and  pathetic ;  and  the  Silver  and 
Gold,  reproduced  in  these  pages,  is  a  very  typical 
example  of  his  tender  and  gracious  art,  in  which  the 
natural  tints  of  the  scene  fall  in  with  certain  little 
strangenesses  of  colour  which  the  artist  sometimes  permits 
himself.  The  Eve  of  St.  Agnes  was  another  important 
work,  a  triptych  illustrating  Keat's  beautiful  poem  ;  and 
of  April  Love  Ruskin  said  :  "  Exquisite  in  every  way : 
lovely  in  colour,  most  subtle  in  the  quivering  expression 
of  the  lips,  and  the  sweetness  of  the  tender  face,  shaken 
like  a  leaf  by  winds  upon  its  dew,  and  hesitating  back 
into  peace." 

Throughout  all  his  art  appeal  is  made  to  a  delicate 
and  refined  sense  of  beauty  (and  this  may  be  to  some 
extent  the  cause  of  his  lack  of  reputation) ;  and  in  Good 
Night  (a  companion  picture  to  Silver  and  Gold)  and 
Home  from  Sea,  this  appeal  is  evident.  The  first  shows 
a  sweet  maiden  looking  at  us  over  her  shoulder  with  a 
pair  of  very  lovely  blue  eyes,  and  scattering  flowers  from 
the  hood  of  her  cloak  as  she  goes  bedward.  The  other, 
Home  from  Sea,  which  was  shown  at  the  Royal  Academy 
in  1863,  is  full  of  simple  pathos.  It  represents  a  sailor  lad 
who  has  come  home  from  sea  to  find  some  loved  relation 
dead ;  and  he  is  in  the  quiet  village  churchyard  with  his 
sister,  a  gentle  girl  in  black.  Her  sorrow  has  been 
tempered  by  time,  for  long  grass  waves  upon  the 
grave ;  but  his  comes  fresh,  and  in  its  terrible  poign- 
ancy he  has  flung  himself  into  an  attitude  of  bitter 
anguish,  and  as  the  girl  kneels  tranquil  and  resigned, 
he  is  lying  on  his  face,  abandoned  to  his  grief. 
This  work  was  followed  by  The  Lost  Child,  Springtide, 
and  The  Guarded  Bower-,  and  many  other  pictures  of 
religious  or  romantic  inspiration  from  that  date  to  the 
present  have  been  shown  at  the  Academy,  the  Grosvenor, 
and  other  galleries.  But  the  vagaries  of  artistic  reputation 





are  strange  in  England,  and  Arthur  Hughes,  true  artist 
and  true  Pre-Raphaelite,  has  suffered  more  than  most 
men  from  lack  of  appreciation.  Always  sweet,  always 
wholesome,  his  work  shows  delicacy  of  feature,  purity  of 
colour,  truth  of  texture,  poetic  fancy.  He  rarely  seems  to 
aim  at  dramatic  force.  It  has  been  said  that  there  are 
mannerisms  of  composition  and  colour  in  his  work,  and 
strength  and  power  are  alien  to  his  art ;  but  the  more 
his  pictures  are  seen,  the  stronger  is  the  affection  they 
inspire.  There  is  a  sweetness  and  gentle  grace  in  the 
subjects,  and  a  pleasing  artistry  in  the  accomplishment, 
that  speak  for  themselves.  Why  his  name  is  so  seldom 
mentioned,  and  why  his  works  lack  the  esteem  that  is 
their  undoubted  due,  who  shall  say  ? 

Graceful  and  delicate  fancy  is  also  the  characteristic  of 
the  art  of  Sir  Noel  Paton,  who,  intimately  associated 
at  one  time  with  Millais,  was  much  impressed  with  the 
work  that  the  Pre-Raphaelites  were  doing ;  so  that, 
agreeing  with  them  as  to  the  greater  portion  of  the 
theories  they  endeavoured  to  act  up  to,  he  consis- 
tently emulated  their  achievements.  Throughout  a  long 
life  (he  was  born  at  Dunfermline  in  1821)  the  influence 
of  the  movement  has  been  obvious  in  his  work  ;  and 
whether  in  the  religious  pictures  of  later  years,  or  the 
delightful  fairy  canvases  of  his  earlier  period,  loving  care 
and  study  are  evident  on  every  hand.  It  was  in  1842-43 
that  Noel  Paton  came  to  London  and  worked  at  the 
Academy  Schools,  but  this  was  for  quite  a  short  time; 
and  indeed,  both  before  and  after  that  date,  the  artist's 
systematic  training  was  very  slight,  and  ideas  came 
too  thick  and  fast,  perhaps,  and  clamoured  for  ex- 
pression before  the  artist's  technical  accomplishments 
were  adequate.  Endowed  with  the  Celtic  vividness  of 
imagination,  it  was  no  wonder  that  he  was  attracted  in 
his  choice  of  subjects  by  the  wild  legends  of  the  North, 


and  by  the  charms  of  the  realms  of  faerie.  Gifted  on 
the  other  hand  with  an  intensely  thoughtful  and  religious 
spirit,  he  has  produced  many  very  striking  pictures 
displaying  notable  allegorical  conceptions,  and  deeply 
devotional  inspirations.  As  well  as  these,  the  artist  has 
painted  a  few  pictures,  such  as  the  Home  of  1856  and 
the  In  Memoriam  of  two  years  later,  which  come  within 
another  category,  and  may  be  said  to  be  purely  Pre- 
Raphaelite,  both  in  idea  and  execution.  Home  is  a 
beautifully-painted  and  deeply  touching  picture,  which 
shows  the  meeting  of  a  guardsman  with  his  wife  and 
mother  on  his  return  from  the  Crimea,  the  terrible  tale 
of  the  privations  and  sufferings  of  the  campaign  being 
told  in  the  soldier's  face.  In  Memoriam  is  a  scene  from 
the  Indian  Mutiny — the  interior  of  a  dungeon  where 
captive  white  women  and  children  are  confined,  expecting 
the  nameless  horrors  of  a  cruel  death,  when  they  are 
released  by  the  Highlanders  who  burst  into  the  prison. 
Dawn:  Luther  at  Erfurt  dates  from  1861,  and  is  a 
thoroughly . sound  piece  of  painting,  colour  and  modelling 
being  equally  noteworthy.  Highly  wrought,  brilliant 
and  vivacious,  it  is  a  very  remarkable  work :  "  On  the 
right  of  the  picture  is  a  massive  golden  crucifix,  the 
emblem  of  time  on  the  one  side  of  it  and  of  mortality 
on  the  other,  above  is  the  open  window  admitting  the 
fresh  incoming  day,  the  dawning  light  of  which  quenches 
the  lamp  that  hangs  near  it,  and  falls  upon  the  hooded 
monk  in  his  study  of  the  Holy  Book,  symbolising  the 
dawn  of  that  light  which  he  was  to  herald  in  by  the 
Reformation."  It  may  be  interesting  to  add  to  this 
description  that  the  face  of  Luther  is  based  on  an 
authentic  contemporary  portrait  of  the  great  reformer. 

Sir  Noel  Paton's  pictures  of  fantasy  or  diablerie,  which 
it  has  been  said  have  been  painted  by  the  artist  as  a 
relaxation  from  the  strain  of  the  execution  of  his  religious 







works,  are  replete  with  charm  ;  full  of  insight  into  the 
graceful  and  delicate  imagining  of  a  great  poet,  as  in  the 
pictures  from  the  "  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,"  or 
imbued  with  a  sympathetic  appreciation  of  the  quaint 
folk-lore  of  a  primitive  people,  as  in  The  Fairy  Raid. 
This  last  picture,  which  is  a  very  elaborate  piece  of 
painting,  is  one  of  the  best  he  ever  executed,  and  it  is 
marked  by  an  opulence  of  imagination  and  a  completeness 
of  realisation  that  show  the  mind  of  the  poet  as  well  as 
the  hand  of  the  artist.  He  has  painted  a  moonlit 
landscape  on  Midsummer  Eve,  and  the  long  cavalcade  of 
the  fairy  queen  bearing  away  a  changeling,  a  sweet 
human  child.  Elf,  fairy,  gnome,  and  sprite  are  all  there, 
peering  between  the  massive  trunks  of  the  trees,  gliding 
among  and  hovering  over  the  flowers  and  fungi  that  form 
the  undergrowth,  and  in  the  cold  moonlight  the  distant 
forms  of  grey  Druidic  stones  stand  stark.  With  these 
works  of  poetic  inspiration  should  be  mentioned  those 
others  which  owe  their  origin  to  some  legend  of  the  days 
of  old,  such  as  The  Dowie  Dens  of  Yarrow,  Barthram's 
Dirge,  The  Bluidie  Tryste,  and  Lancelot  and  Guinevere ; 
and  whether  the  subject  is  drawn  from  old  tradition  or  the 
realms  of  pure  fancy,  it  is  evident  that  the  artist's  mind  is 
thoroughly  attuned  to  his  theme. 

Of  his  pictures  of  religious  or  allegorical  significance, 
there  is  perhaps  not  so  much  to  say ;  and,  though  more 
popular  and  more  widely  known  than  the  other  works 
which  have  been  alluded  to,  these  homilies  in  pigment  are 
not  the  highest  manifestations  of  the  artist's  talents. 
Vigilate  et  Orate,  which  was  painted  for  Her  Majesty  Queen 
Victoria,  is  one  of  the  best  and  most  typical  of  these  works, 
and  shows  the  scene  at  the  coming  of  dawn  in  the  garden 
of  Gethsemane,  when  Christ,  returning  after  his  hour  of 
trial,  finds  the  three  disciples  asleep,  despite  his  injunction 
to  watch  and  pray.  Other  works  of  the  same  class  are 


Satan  watching  the  Sleep  of  Christ,  The  Man  of  Sorrows, 
and  Vade  Satana ;  and  though  the  sentiment  of  the 
whole  series  is  above  reproach,  still  one  is  not  moved  as 
one  should  be  by  great  religious  art ;  they  are  the  work 
of  a  man  of  profoundly  reverent  mind,  but  they  cannot 
be  said  to  be  sublime  masterpieces  ;  they  are  not  inspired, 
the  artist  does  not  give  us  an  adequate  conception  of  the 
face  of  Christ ;  in  short,  the  whole  task  is  one  to  tax 
genius  to  its  utmost,  and  Sir  Noel  Paton  can  scarcely 
be  said  to  have  risen  to  the  occasion.  The  less  ambitious 
efforts  such  as  Mors  Janua  Vita,  and  The  Man  with  the 
Muck-rake,  are  much  more  successful ;  they  are  frankly 
allegories,  and  they  appeal  to  the  spectator  both  from  the 
literary  aspect  and  from-  many  painter-like  qualities  of 

Many  honours  have  fallen  to  Sir  Noel  Paton.  The 
knighthood  he  received  in  1866  might  have  been  followed 
in  1891,  had  he  wished  it,  by  the  Presidency  of  the  Royal 
Scottish  Academy,  of  which  body  he  became  an  associate 
in  1 847 ;  but  private  reasons  prevented  his  becoming  a 
candidate.  Prolific  throughout  a  long  life,  he  has 
produced,  in  addition  to  his  painting,  book  illustrations, 
works  of  sculpture,  and  volumes  of  poems ;  a  fine 
draughtsman,  and  gifted  with  imaginative  and  poetic 
force  of  a  very  high  order,  as  a  colorist  he  is  not  so 
great,  a  defect  possibly  due  to  his  lack  of  early  training ; 
and  his  true  power  shows  itself  in  his  pictures  from  the 
realms  of  fancy,  wholly  delightful  presentations  of 
myth  and  legend  (and,  perhaps  in  a  less  degree,  in  his 
vividly-presented  pictorial  allegories),  rather  than  in  his 
more  ambitious  and  less  successfully  realised  religious 

W.   L.   WINDUS 






W.    S.    BURTON 




W.   J.    WEBBE 

THERE  are  many  artists  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  school 
who  are  almost  unknown  outside  the  small  circle  of 
students  of  this  phase  of  English  art,  and  to  many  even 
of  those  who  believe  that  it  was  to  the  Brotherhood  and 
their  followers  that  we  owe  the  inspiring  influence  that 
has  permeated  and  vivified  the  dry  bones  of  our  national 
art,  and  who  know  well  the  work  of  Millais  and  Madox 
Brown,  of  Sandys  and  Burne-Jones,  the  art  of  such  men 
as  Windus  and  Burton  is  but  little  known.  All  the 
pictures  painted  by  the  men  whose  names  head  this 
chapter  could  be  contained  in  a  very  small  gallery.  Some 
curious  fatality  would  seem  to  have  attended  them, 
and  it  has  been  their  fate  to  exhibit  but  scantily  the 
power  that  they  possessed.  An  early  death  in  the  case 
of  Lawless,  Collins,  and  Martineau,  prevented  the  full 
fruitage  of  their  ability.  The  victims  of  adverse  circum- 
stances and  private  griefs,  Burton  and  Windus  have  had 
but  little  heart  these  many  years  to  paint.  And  the 


genius  of  William  Morris  showed  itself  not  in  pictorial 
art,  but  in  the  many  and  diverse  forms  of  decorative 
beauty  that  will  be  ever  associated  with  his  name. 
Unlike  the  artists  who  will  be  alluded  to  in  the  succeed- 
ing chapter,  and  with  whom  Pre-Raphaelism  was  but  a 
passing  phase  of  longer  or  shorter  duration,  in  the  minds 
of  these  men  it  was  a  strong  and  permanent  conviction 
that  prompted  their  endeavour  after  sincerity,  and  their 
abhorrence  of  pictorial  artifice  and  convention ;  and 
throughout  all  their  work  the  same  principles  were 
consistently  acted  upon.  It  matters  not  whether,  as 
with  Charles  Collins,  the  rich  colour  and  masterly 
technique  of  Millais  were  the  fountain  of  inspiration,  or 
whether,  as  with  Robert  Martineau,  the  unflinching  and 
patient  realism  of  Holman  Hunt  appealed  to  the  follower's 
mind ;  the  seed,  from  whatever  source  it  came,  fell  upon 
fruitful  ground.  It  is  true  that  the  inception  of  the 
practical  protest  against  what  they  considered  bad  art  was 
not  due  to  them,  they  did  not  lead  in  the  van  of  the 
revolt ;  still,  despite  the  fact  that  the  sum-total  of  their 
accomplishment  is  small,  they  painted  pictures  with  many 
remarkable  qualities,  and  it  is  time  that  the  extent  of 
their  achievement  should  be  recognised. 

Charles  Allston  Collins  was  the  son  of  William  Collins, 
R.A.,  and  the  brother  of  Wilkie  Collins,  and  was  much 
attracted,  as  has  been  said,  by  the  work  of  Millais,  in 
whose  style  he  painted.  The  picture  of  The  Pedlar,  here 
reproduced,  gives  an  adequate  idea  of  his  art,  and  though 
he  was  not  a  great  painter,  the  tendency  to  stiffness  which 
mars  such  work  of  his  as  Convent  Thoughts  and  A  Girl 
with  Flowers  may  fairly  be  considered  a  mark  of 
immaturity  which  in  time  he  might  have  overcome,  had 
he  not  practically  abandoned  painting  and  turned  his 
attention  to  literature  some  time  before  his  early  death. 
Which  his  real  metier  was,  and  whether,  with  his  inherited 




artistic  talent,  he  might  not  have  ultimately  produced 
much  finer  work,  it  would  be  futile  now  to  inquire. 

William  Morris  used  but  rarely  to  express  his  feeling 
for  the  beautiful  in  pictorial  guise,  and  it  may  be  that  we 
owe  him  more  as  the  originator  of  a  true  decorative  art 
(using  the  word  in  its  widest  sense)  of  a  very  original  and 
satisfying  kind,  than  we  should  if  he  had  turned  his 
attention  to  the  production  of  pictures  instead  of 
magnificent  tapestries  and  superb  stained  glass.  At  the 
same  time,  the  very  charming  Queen  Guenevere  makes 
one  wish  that  he  had  spared  a  little  more  time  from  his 
labours  as  a  craftsman  to  devote  it  to  more  purely  creative 
work.  This  picture  shows  a  minstrel  playing  on  a  lute, 
while  the  Queen  stands  before  her  toilet  table  putting 
on  her  girdle ;  she  wears  a  white  dress  with  pink 
embroidery  and  red  sleeves,  and  a  wreath  of  flowers 
adorns  her  head.  The  whole  work  evinces  much  power 
and  facility,  together  with  a  feeling  for  rich  and  strong 
colour,  while  there  is  an  individual  poetic  quality  to  be 
seen  in  it,  akin  to,  but  distinct  from,  the  note  that  marks 
the  earlier  pictures  of  Rossetti. 

An  almost  forgotten  artist  of  singular  power  and 
originality  is  W.  S.  Burton,  whose  great  picture  The 
Wounded  Cavalier  has  seemed  to  many  one  of  the  finest 
works  ever  painted  in  England  under  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
influence.  That  he  has  painted  so  little  is  a  matter  for 
very  keen  regret,  and  all  lovers  of  sincere  and  original 
work  will  rejoice  to  know  that  though  for  many  years  he 
produced  next  to  nothing,  he  has  resumed  the  practice 
of  his  art,  and  is  now  again  exhibiting  pictures  which 
are  thoroughly  characteristic  of  the  man  and  his  creed. 
Contemptuous  of  all  pictorial  artifice,  and  scorning  all 
artistic  trickery,  he  bade  fair  in  his  early  days  to  rise  to 
very  great  heights  ;  but  adverse  fortune  and  ill-health 
have  been  his  lot,  while  private  sorrows  and  lack  of 


recognition  have  saddened  him.  He  was  a  student 
at  the  Royal  Academy  Schools,  where  he  won  the  gold 
medal  for  historical  painting ;  and  when  he  was  only 
twenty-six  years  of  age  The  Wounded  Cavalier  (which 
was  first  shown  at  the  Academy  in  1856)  excited  con- 
siderable attention,  not  only  from  the  character  of  the 
picture,  but  because  it  was  catalogued  without  title  or 
artist's  name,  a  mystery  which  has  only  just  been 
elucidated  by  the  painter  himself.  This  remarkable 
work,  which  hung  on  the  line,  next  to  Holman  Hunt's 
Scapegoat,  may  be  taken  as  crystallising  the  artist's 
practice  and  principles  at  that  time,  principles  that  he 
has  consistently  adhered  to.  The  subject  is  a  Cavalier 
whose  despatches  have  been  stolen  from  him  as  he  jour- 
neyed through  a  wood,  while  he,  sorely  wounded,  has 
been  left  to  die,  until  later  a  Puritan  and  his  lady  pass 
by,  and  the  latter  stops  to  tend  the  wounded  man,  while 
her  jealous  lover  looks  sourly  on.  The  desperate  plight 
of  the  Cavalier  is  shown  in  his  death-like  countenance, 
while  the  pitiful  face  of  the  Puritan  maiden,  which  is  full 
of  charm,  strong,  yet  tender  and  replete  with  compassion, 
may  be  compared  with  the  face  of  the  lady  in  The 
Proscribed  Royalist — the  anxious  glance  of  eyes  that 
have  wept,  depicted  by  Millais  in  such  masterly  fashion. 
Altogether  this  is  a  superb  picture,  full  of  dramatic  vigour 
and  fine  in  colour,  and  both  strong  and  refined  in  drawing, 
while  the  technique  is  marvellous,  and  the  master's  hand 
is  seen  in  the  way  in  which  all  hardness  is  avoided, 
although  the  lichen  on  the  tree  trunks,  the  spider's  web, 
the  broken  sword,  the  bracken,  and  the  other  details  gene- 
rally, are  painted  with  most  minute  fidelity  and  precision. 
Later  works  by  W.  S.  Burton  were  A  London  Magdalen, 
The  Angel  of  Death,  and  William  TelPs  Son  ;  while  still 
more  recently  the  artist  has  exhibited  Faithful  unto  Death, 
and  The  King  of  Sorrows.  The  former  work  shows  the 

W.  S.   BURTON 


W.  S.  BURTON  79 

ictim  of  an  auto-da-ft  clothed  in  the  horrid  robes  that 
rnark  the  recalcitrant  heretic,  about  to  be  crowned  by  a 
nonk  with  the  mitre  head-dress  worn  in  the  procession 
Dy  those  about  to  suffer  martyrdom,  and  is  a  very  note- 
worthy picture,  as  strong  in  drawing  as  in  sentiment. 
Even  more  beautiful  is  the  small  work,  The  World's 
Gratitude^  a  picture  of  the  finest  quality,  which  shows 
:he  sad  questioning  face  of  Christ  behind  prison  bars: 
his  may  fairly  be  said  to  be  one  of  the  very  few  entirely 
successful  faces  of  the  Saviour  in  recent  art — the  aspect 
)f  superhuman  knowledge  is  there,  as  well  as  the  human 
md  tender  sorrow  for  the  world  that  knows  him,  but 
<eeps  him  barred  away  while  it  goes  about  its  business. 
Some  works  of  Burton's  have  perished,  others  have  never 
n  carried  to  completion,  so  severe  is  his  self-criticism; 
md  though  it  is  possible  that  we  may  be  able  to  welcome 
n  the  future  other  pictures  of  religious  inspiration  from 
:his  artist,  it  is  lamentable  to  think  of  the  many  unpainted 
masterpieces  we  might  have  had  from  his  brush  during  the 
Drime  of  his  manhood,  had  not  fate  willed  otherwise.  The 
ew  pictures  we  have  are  evidence  of  ability  of  a  very  high 
Drder  indeed,  as  delicate  in  handling  as  they  are  strong 
n  drawing,  as  original  in  their  conception  as  they  are 
sincere  in  execution;  and  we  can  ill  spare  the  accom- 
Dlished  work  of  such  an  artist,  honest  both  as  a  man  and 

painter,  and  entirely  contemptuous  and  intolerant  of  all 
hams  and  trickeries. 

An  almost  exactly  parallel  career  is  that  of  William 
^indsay  Windus,  a  Liverpool  artist,  who  at  one  time 
ittracted  considerable  notice  by  his  sound  and  refined 
vork.  He  painted  subjects  of  sentiment,  Biird  Helen 
and  Too  Late,  for  example, in  a  thoroughly  Pre-Raphaelite 
nanner ;  and  also  pseudo-historical  subjects  somewhat  after 
:he  style  of  Cattermole,  of  which  The  Surgeon's  Daughter 
:S  an  example.  But  suddenly,  owing,  it  is  said,  to  a  great 


sorrow,  he  left  off  painting,  and  nothing  was  seen  of  his 
work  till,  in  1896,  the  New  English  Art  Club  startled 
the  picture  loving  public,  who  had  thought  Windus  dead, 
by  showing  three  unfinished  works  of  his  on  their  walls. 
What  the  veteran  Pre-Raphaelite  was  doing  in  that  gallery 
was  a  question  not  easy  to  answer,  but  the  little  pictures, 
incomplete  as  they  were,  were  gems  of  their  kind.  Living 
retired  from  the  world,  he  has  not  sought  public  notice, 
and,  as  in  the  case  of  W.  S.  Burton,  to  look  for  a  typical 
example  of  his  work  one  must  go  back  to  the  earlier  years 
of  his  artistic  career.  Too  Late  was  painted  in  1858,  and 
represents  a  poor  girl  in  the  last  stage  of  consumption 
whose  lover  had  gone  away,  to  return  at  last,  led  by  a 
little  child,  when  it  was  "too  late."  Madox  Brown  said 
of  this  work:  "The  expression  of  the  dying  face  is  quite 
sufficient — no  other  explanation  is  needed."  The  subject 
of  Burd  Helen,  painted  two  years  earlier,  was  taken  from 
the  old  Scottish  ballad  of  the  girl  who  ran  by  the  side  of 
her  faithless  lover's  horse  while  he  rode,  and  swam  the 
Clyde,  rather  than  he  should  escape.  Ruskin's  remarks 
on  this  picture  are  entirely  true.  He  says:  "The  work  is 
thoughtful  and  intense  in  the  highest  degree.  The 
pressure  of  the  girl's  hand  on  her  side,  her  wild,  firm, 
desolate  look  at  the  stream — she  not  raising  her  eyes  as 
she  makes  her  appeal,  for  fear  of  the  greater  mercilessness 
in  the  human  look  than  in  the  glaze  of  the  gliding  water 
—the  just  choice  of  the  type  of  the  rider's  cruel  face,  and 
of  the  scene  itself,  so  terrible  in  haggardness  of  rattling 
stones  and  ragged  heath,  are  all  marks  of  the  actions  of 
the  very  grandest  imaginative  power,  shortened  only  of^ 
hold  upon  our  feelings  because  dealing  with  a  subject  too. 
fearful  to  be  for  a  moment  believed  true."  Windus's 
works  are  few ;  The  Young  Duke,  The  Outlaw,  and  the 
very  beautiful  little  drawing  entitled  The  Flight  of 
Henry  VI.  after  Towton  have  been  seen  at  lo< 


sorrow,  he  left  off  painting,  and  nothing  was  seen  of  his 
work  till,  in  1896,  the  New  English  Art  Club  startled 
the  picture  loving  public,  who  had  thought  Windus  dead, 
by  showing  three  unfinished  works  of  his  on  their  walls. 
What  the  veteran  Pre-Raphaelite  was  doing  in  that  gallery 
was  a  question  not  easy  to  answer,  but  the  little  pictures, 
incomplete  as  they  were,  were  gems  of  their  kind.  Living 
retired  from  the  world,  he  has  not  sought  public  notice, 
and,  as  in  the  case  of  W.  S.  Burton,  to  look  for  a  typical 
example  of  his  work  one  must  go  back  to  the  earlier  years 
of  his  artistic  career.  Too  Late  was  painted  in  1858,  and 
represents  a  poor  girl  in  the  last  stage  of  consumption 
whose  lover  had  gone  away,  to  return  at  last,  led  by  a 
little  child,  when  it  was  "too  late."  Madox  Brown  said 
of  this  work:  "The  expression  of  the  dying  face  is  quite 
sufficient — no  other  explanation  is  needed."  The  subject 
of  Burd  Helen ,  painted  two  years  earlier,  was  taken  from 
the  old  Scottish  ballad  of  the  girl  who  ran  by  the  side  of 
her  faithless  lover's  horse  while  he  rode,  and  swam  the 
Clyde,  rather  than  he  should  escape.  Ruskin's  remarks 
on  this  picture  are  entirely  true.  He  says:  "The  work  is 
thoughtful  and  intense  in  the  highest  degree.  The 
pressure  of  the  girl's  hand  on  her  side,  her  wild,  firm, 
desolate  look  at  the  stream — she  not  raising  her  eyes  as 
she  makes  her  appeal,  for  fear  of  the  greater  mercilessness 
in  the  human  look  than  in  the  glaze  of  the  gliding  water 
—the  just  choice  of  the  type  of  the  rider's  cruel  face,  and 
of  the  scene  itself,  so  terrible  in  haggardness  of  rattling 
stones  and  ragged  heath,  are  all  marks  of  the  actions  of 
the  very  grandest  imaginative  power,  shortened  only  of 
hold  upon  our  feelings  because  dealing  with  a  subject  too 
fearful  to  be  for  a  moment  believed  true."  Windus's 
works  are  few ;  The  Young  Duke,  The  Outlaw,  and  the 
very  beautiful  little  drawing  entitled  The  Flight  of 
Henry  VI.  after  Towton  have  been  seen  at  loan 


exhibitions  in  recent  years  ;  but  is  it  too  much  to  hope 
that  he  may  yet  give  us  more  pictures  as  strong  and 
masculine,  as  full  of  enthusiasm  and  refinement  as  those 
that  have  been  alluded  to  ? 

Matthew  James  Lawless,  who  was  born  at  Dublin  in 
1837,  died  too  young  to  have  ever  shown  to  the  full  his 
artistic  powers.  He  went  during  his  pupilage  to  various 
art  schools  in  London,  finally  studying  under  Henry 
O'Neil,  R.A.,  and  though  hampered  by  deafness  and 
constant  ill-health,  he  produced  during  his  short  life  book 
illustrations  (for  The  Cornhill  Magazine,  Once  a  Week 
and  kindred  publications)  of  a  very  high  order ;  and 
after  trying  various  styles,  he  seemed  to  be  settling 
down  into  an  individual  method,  when  consumption 
claimed  him  as  its  victim,  and  he  died  in  1864.  The 
j  picture  in  which  he  really  showed  his  power  was  The 
Sick  Call,  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  the  year 
before  he  died.  It  represents  a  scene  in  the  waning  light 
of  evening — a  priest  who  is  crossing  a  river  in  a  boat, 
taking  the  host  to  render  the  last  offices  to  a  dying 
person,  and  accompanied  by  his  white-robed  acolytes, 
and  the  weeping  woman  who  has  fetched  him ;  while  the 
towers  and  spires  of  the  town  on  the  river  bank  rise  clear 
into  the  still  air.  This  is  a  picture  full  of  quiet  feeling 
and  gentle  charm,  simple  and  refined  in  the  highest 
degree,  and,  had  he  lived,  there  is  no  doubt  that  Lawless 
would  have  produced  still  more  noteworthy  work.  As  it 
is,  his  reputation  is  deservedly  high. 

A  brief  allusion  to  two  artists  who  were  much  influenced 
in  their  work  by  that  of  Holman  Hunt  must  close  this 
section.  One  of  these  was  W.  J.  Webbe,  whose  very 
pleasing  little  picture  of  Lambs  at  Play  might  almost 
be  taken  for  the  work  of  the  artist  of  The  Strayed  Sheep 
himself.  The  other  was  a  painter  whose  early  death  was 
a  distinct  loss  to  art — Robert  Martineau.  Martineau's 


work  at  one  time  attracted  considerable  attention  ;  to-day 
he  is  almost  forgotten  ;  but  his  painting  approaches  his 
master's  very  closely  in  quality  and  technique.  He 
painted  very  slowly  and  conscientiously,  and  only 
produced  three  or  four  pictures  of  importance  before  he 
died.  The  Lesson,  a  picture  illustrating  a  scene  in 
Dickens'  "  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  Katharina  and  Petruchio, 
and  The  Last  Day  in  the  Old  Home,  are  good  examples 
of  his  patient  and  laborious  skill ;  and  the  last,  which  is 
rather  a  large  work,  recently  acquired  by  the  National 
Gallery  of  British  art,  is  reproduced  in  these  pages. 



G.    D.    LESLIE 
G.    A.    STOREY 
J.    D.    WATSON 

P.    H.    CALDERON 
J.    F.    LEWIS 

T   TNDOUBTEDLY,  Pre-Raphaelism  in  the  fifties  and 
J  sixties  was  a  living  and  moving  force  of  no  mean 
order,  and    many  an  artist   succumbed    for  a  longer  or 
a  shorter  time  to  its  influence.     To  some  of  them  to-day, 
t  is  a  matter  for  a  sort  of  half-tolerant  joke,  an  episode 
n  a  career  to  be  somewhat  ashamed  of;  others  recognise 
rankly,   that   if  from  one  cause  or   another  it  was   an 
mpracticable    gospel,   still,   its   power  was   distinctly  for 
good.     It  tended  to  overthrow  the  mawkish  mediocrity 
Ithat  was  almost  entirely  usurping  the  field  of  art ;  while 
it   substituted  an   ideal    that  at  least   had    the  merit  of 
honesty  and  spontaneity,  a  desire  to  be  original  and  not 
the  product  of  a  workshop  for  the  manufacture  of  painters, 
and  a  gospel  that  said,  "  not  failure  but  low  aim  is  crime." 
Such   a   crusade   against   crusted    prejudices   needs    en- 
thusiasm to  embark  upon  it,  and  strong  convictions  to 
carry  it  on,   and    enthusiasts    are    not  always  judicious. 
They  are  just  as  prone  to  excess  in  the  field  of  art  as 
[elsewhere ;  still,  progress  does  not  come  of  half-hearted- 


ness,  and  one  can  forgive  many  crudities  of  expression 
for  the  sake  of  the  honesty  of  the  aim,  aud  many  errors 
may  be  overlooked  in  the  preacher  when  the  doctrine 
smacks  of  truth.  If  there  had  been  no  necessity  for  the 
reaction,  it  would  not  have  existed,  not  to  say,  succeeded  \t 
and  though  the  first  efforts  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brother- 
hood and  their  entourage  provoked  scorn  and  laughter 
from  the  public  and  the  critics,  many  artists  saw  that 
there  was  something  in  the  movement.  They  learnt 
one  lesson,  to  go  to  Nature,  and  copy  her  details  as 
stepping-stones  to  her  greater  truths  ;  they  learnt,  too, 
the  value  of  imagination  as  a  factor  in  art,  and  the 
young  artists  who  banded  themselves  together  in  that 
Brotherhood  initiated  a  movement  which  was  in  a  great 
measure  the  salvation  of  English  art. 

To-day  there  are  too  many  "  movements,"  and  such  an 
agitation  as  the  Pre-Raphaelites  started  would  attract 
little,  if  any,  attention.  In  the  stagnant  state  of  the  arts 
at  the  period  spoken  of,  it  was  as  the  troubling  of  the 
waters,  and  there  was  healing  in  the  troubling.  At  that 
time,  the  elderly  Gandishes  who  believed  in  "history 
painting"  and  the  "  grand  style,"  and  who  also  believed 
that  the  acquisition  of  this  "  grand  style  "  was  a  matter 
of  teaching,  of  rule  and  method,  were,  of  course,  aghast 
at  the  militant  enthusiasm  for  quite  other  ideals  and 
doctrines  displayed  by  the  small  band  of  brothers ;  but, 
of  the  younger  men,  many  were  quick  to  discern  that 
many  forgotten  truths  lay  behind  the  immature  ex- 
pressions of  their  creed  achieved  by  these  as  yet 
imperfectly  trained  artists.  Later,  when  the  seed  sown 
in  the  minds  of  the  original  Pre-Raphaelites  blossomed 
into  the  full  flower  of  such  work  as  The  Proscribed 
Royalist,  and  The  Last  of  England,  and  the  other 
masterpieces  of  the  next  decade,  many  painters  who 
either  fell  under  the  personal  influence  of  the  Pre- 


Raphaelites  and  their  associates,  or  whose  minds 
responded  to  the  ideals  that  they  set  before  them, 
bestirred  themselves,  and  also  honestly  endeavoured  to 
put  the  best  that  was  in  them  into  the  work  that  they 
did.  They  saw  that  a  paucity  of  flimsy  ideas  and  a  few 
rules  of  thumb  were  not  the  equipment  with  which  to 
produce  great  art,  and  they  recognised  that  technical 
skill  must  be  allied  to  dignity,  or,  at  any  rate,  honesty  of 
conception,  if  a  picture  is  to  be  anything  more  than  a  piece 
of  mere  craftsmanship,  of  uninspired  manipulative  ability. 
As  has  been  said,  with  gome  artists  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
phase  was  but  a  momentary  mood,  the  result  of  an 
impression  that  was  far  from  permanent ;  with  others, 
the  mental  result  has  been  more  lasting,  though  their 
later  work  has  ceased  to  partake  of  the  definite  character 
which  is  associated  with  the  term  Pre-Raphaelite.  In 
some  cases,  too,  the  painter's  individual  aims  and  ideals 
have  been  quite  other  than  those  animating  the  original 
members  of  the  Brotherhood ;  and  in  many  instances 
artists  have  outgrown  the  manipulative  practice  that  is 
exemplified  in  the  work  of  Holman  Hunt  and  Strudwick, 
and  the  laborious  care  bestowed  upon  the  pictures  of 
early  years  falls  into  place  as  part  of  the  student's 
curriculum,  and  is  abandoned  after  having  served  its 
purpose  in  the  attainment  of  a  mastery  of  technical 
methods.  It  would  be  folly  to  impugn  an  artist's  right 
to  paint  in  the  way  that  pleases  him  best,  his  duty  to 
himself  is  to  express  his  own  creed  in  his  own  way ;  but 
the  fact  that  the  Pre-Raphaelite  phase  can  be  seen  in  the 
careers  of  so  many  painters  is  interesting,  because  it  is 
an  additional  proof  of  the  strength  and  extent  of  the 
influence  exerted  on  contemporary  art  by  the  school— 
an  influence  so  far-reaching,  indeed,  that  its  traces  can 
be  noted  in  the  work  of  many  painters  who  never  were  in 
any  way  ostensible  followers  of  the  Brotherhood,  but  who 


yet  recognised  the  essential  truth  of  the  creed  its  members 

In  this  section,  necessarily  a  brief  one,  it  would  be 
impossible  to  attempt  any  account  of  the  careers  of  the 
various  artists  who  have  been  spoken  of  above  in  general 
terms ;  all  that  can  be  given  is  a  note  on  some  of  the 
pictures  from  their  easels  painted  under  Pre-Raphaelite 
influence.  Much  of  the  work  of  Henry  Wallis  betrays 
this  influence,  and  the  beautiful  Chatterton,  as  well  as 
The  Return  from  Marston  Moor  and  Marten  at  Chepstow 
Castle,  are  examples  of  very  sincere  and  delightful  art. 
Of  the  first  of  these  Ruskin  said  that  it  was  "  Faultless 
and  wonderful ;  a  most  noble  example  of  the  great  school. 
Examine  it  well,  inch  by  inch ;  it  is  one  of  the  pictures 
which  intend  and  accomplish  the  entire  placing  before 
your  eyes  of  an  actual  fact — and  that  a  solemn  one."  The 
enthusiasm  of  the  same  critic  was  also  roused  by  The 
Stonebreaker^  by  John  Brett,  now  A.R.A.,  and  his  words 
may  fitly  be  quoted  in  this  connection.  He  said,  "  I 
know  no  such  thistledown,  no  such  chalk  hills  and  elm 
trees,  no  such  natural  pieces  of  far-away  cloud.  .  .  .  The 
composition  is  palpably  crude,  and  wrong  in  many  ways, 
especially  in  the  awkward  little  white  cloud  at  the  top, 
and  the  tone  of  the  whole  is  a  little  too  much  as  if  some 
of  the  chalk  of  the  flints  had  been  mixed  with  the  colours. 
For  all  that  it  is  a  marvellous  picture,  and  may  be 
examined  inch  by  inch  with  delight."  This  painter's 
pictures  still  show  more  than  a  trace  of  his  early 
enthusiasm,  and  the  beautiful  seascapes  that  he  has 
accustomed  us  to  expect  year  after  year  are  full  of 
most  searching  and  careful  work,  full,  too,  of  the  love 
and  reverence  for  Nature  that  was  one  of  the  guiding 
stars  of  the  schools.  It  is  curious  to  note  that  both  our 
great  sea-painters  of  this  generation  passed  through  a 
Pre-Raphaelite  period,  for  the  small  example  of  Henry 

G.  A.   STOREY,  A.R.A. 


Moore's  work  reproduced  in  these  pages  is  thoroughly 
in  accord  with  the  principles  of  the  Brotherhood.  But 
John  Brett  did  what  few  ventured  to  do,  he  carried  the 
tenets  of  the  Pre-Raphaelites  into  the  painting  of 
landscapes — a  task  of  enormous  difficulty — and  those 
who  have  seen  his  Val  cFAosta  know  how  successfully, 
this  marvellous  landscape  being  a  veritable  tour-de-force, 
indeed  a  thing  almost  unique.  It  is  curious  to  note, 
when  one  comes  to  consider,  how  few  painters  have 
succumbed  to  the  influence  of  the  school  in  depicting 
pure  landscape ;  and  yet  Holman  Hunt,  in  his  Hireling 
Shepherd,  showed  once  for  all  that  their  principles  were 
as  applicable  to  landscape  art  as  to  romantic  figure 
pictures.  One  thinks  of  J.  W.  Inchbold,  of  Thomas 
Seddon,  of  William  Davis,  of  Waller  Paton,  R.S.A.,  and 
the  list  is  closed  of  those  who  have  painted  landscapes 
face  to  face  with  Nature,  and  painted  them  with  the 
elaborate  fidelity  demanded  by  the  Pre-Raphaelite 
tenets.  Perhaps  the  remark  of  the  critic  who  stigma- 
tised the  latter  as  "the  Coryphaeus  of  the  Chinese 
school "  has  deterred  our  younger  artists  from  attempting 
the  same  thing. 

The  early  work  of  three  other  present  members  of  the 
Royal  Academy  must  also  be  alluded  to  in  this  chapter 
— G.  D.  Leslie,  Val  Prinsep,  and  G.  A.  Storey.  They 
were  noble  dreams  that  inspired  such  a  picture  as  Leslie's 
Dante's  Leah,  and  no  artist  was  ever  the  worse  for  the 
intellectual  effort  that  prompted  him  to  begin,  and  enabled 
him  to  execute,  work  of  such  quality.  Poetically  con- 
ceived, and  beautifully  wrought,  such  a  picture  lingers  in 
the  memory ;  and  a  similar  intensity  of  feeling  marks 
such  pictures  by  G.  A.  Storey  as  The  Annunciation,  A 
Song  of  the  Past,  and  The  Burial  of  the  Bride.  The 
rich  colour  and  close  technique  of  these  beautiful  works 
betray  the  artist's  admiration  of  the  earlier  pictures  of 


Millais,  and  though  this  phase  of  inspiration  has  passed, 
the  painter's  canvases  show  to-day  that  the  influence  was, 
in  his  case,  by  no  means  an  ephemeral  one.  Side  by 
side  with  these  we  may  class  Val  Prinsep's  Bianco.  Capello, 
and  Whispering  Tongues  can  Poison  Truth,  and  the  other 
pictures  painted  under  the  direct  personal  inspiration  of 
Rossetti ;  and  these  pictures  are  by  no  means  the  worst 
that  the  versatile  artist  has  produced— clear,  sharp 
painting  and  graceful  composition  are  their  charac- 
teristics, as  well  as  a  very  real  and  poetic  imagination. 
The  same  qualities  are  apparent  in  the  work  of  another 
artist  of  this  group,  and  such  pictures  as  J.  D.  Watson's 
Bubbles,  and  The  Garden  Seat,  painted  in  1856  and' 
1858  respectively,  as  well  as  the  same  artist's  woodcut 
designs  of  about  this  date,  are  full  of  delicate  feeling  and 
fancy,  and  really  call  for  more  than  the  passing  allusion 
permitted  here  by  the  exigencies  of  space.  There  are  in 
connection  with  this  group  of  artists,  two  other  painters 
who  must  be  mentioned  as  having  been  attracted  by  the 
work  of  the  Pre-Raphaelites — H.  W.  B.  Davis,  R.A.,  whose 
earlier  landscapes  are  strongly  influenced  by  the  tenets  of 
the  Brethren  and  their  associates,  and  the  late  Philip 
Calderon,  R.A.  Once,  at  least,  the  latter  artist,  moved  by 
the  prevalent  excitement,  painted  in  the  style  they  advocated 
and  practised  ;  Broken  Vows,  the  work  in  question,  was 
highly  successful  when  it  was  exhibited  in  1857, 
and  although  with  this  painter  the  phase  was  but  a 
passing  one  of  short  duration,  this  picture,  and  the  success 
attending  it,  afford  another  piece  of  evidence  as  to  the 
working  of  the  leaven  in  the  minds  both  of  artists  and 

The  late  J.  M.  Gray,  the  scholarly  keeper  of  the  Scottish 
National  Portrait  Gallery,  once  made  a  suggestive  remark 
as  to  the  unnoticed  extent  to  which  Pre-Raphaelite  in- 
fluence had  affected  the  work  of  Scottish  painters.  Apart 



VAL  C.   PRTNSEP.   R.A. 

Whispej'ing  tongues  can  poison  trut/i, 
And  to  be  wrath  with  one  we've  lovc 
Doth  work  like  Poison  on  the  brain  " 


from  the  pictures  of  Sir  Noel  Paton,  already  treated  of, 
Pre-Raphaelism  is  strongly  evident  in  the  work  of  Sir 
William  Fettes  Douglas,  P.R.S.A.  As  in  the  case  of 
J.  F.  Lewis,  it  is  not  in  the  works  of  his  youthful  days 
that  this  phase  of  his  artistic  development  may  be  traced, 
but  rather  in  the  period  of  his  early  maturity.  Later,  his 
works  became  analogous  (like  those  of  many  other  Scottish 
painters)  to  the  genre  pictures  of  the  Dutch  school,  but 
for  a  long  time,  as  Mr  Gray  observed,  his  pictures 
manifested  "  by  their  delicate  and  exquisitely  refined 
finish,  by  their  force  of  pure,  lovely  colouring,  by  their 
frequent  quaintness  of  form  and  costume,  and  by  the 
sometimes  odd  and  segmental  style  of  their  composition, 
a  distinct  affinity  with  the  work  of  the  English  Pre- 
Raphaelites.  His  treatment  of  rustic  child-life  in  Little 
Dot,  The  Match-Seller,  and  the  large  Cottage  Interior, 
Borrowdale,  is  analogous  to  that  which  we  find  in  the 
class  of  works  centrally  represented  by  The  Blind  Girl  of 
John  Millais ;  and  the  more  romantic  and  mediaeval  phase 
of  Pre-Raphaelism  finds  a  kindred  expression  in  paintings 
like  The  Ruby  Ring,  The  Tapestry  Worker,  The  Spell, 
and  many  others." 

Again,  in  such  Scottish  pictures  as  Going  to  the  Hay, 
by  Hugh  Cameron,  R.S.A.,  one  finds  a  work  "as  perfectly 
Pre-Raphaelite  in  the  best  sense  of  the  word,  as  could  be 
desired — full  of  the  most  delicate,  finished,  and  sensitive 
expression  of  detail — not  a  single  corner  in  the  tender 
sprays  of  the  briar-hedge  is  slurred  over,  not  a  spot  is 
missed  on  the  expanded  wings  of  the  butterfly,  yet  the 
whole  is  in  right  relation."  Only  a  passing  allusion  can 
be  made  to  the  Arthurian  subjects  of  James  Archer,  which 
re-echo  the  imaginative  inspiration  of  his  English  con- 
freres, and  to  the  Pre-Raphaelite  influence  as  expressed 
in  the  earlier  work  of  Joseph  Henderson ;  arid  the 
extraordinary  divergence  between  the  early  and  highly 


wrought  work  of  William  M'Taggart,  R.S.A.,  and  his 
later  superlatively  loose  and  suggestive  handling,  can 
only  be  briefly  spoken  of  here.  No  one  who  saw  The 
Thorn  in  the  Foot  by  the  side  of  The  Storm,  or  When 
the  Boats  come  in,  could  believe  that  the  same  artist  had 
painted  them  ;  but  the  extreme  freedom  and  breadth  of 
handling  of  M'Taggart's  later  work  is,  if  not  the  result, 
at  any  rate  the  consequence,  of  a  scrupulous  exactitude 
and  fidelity  to  the  details  of  Nature  in  his  earlier  days. 
No  doubt  this  painter's  broad,  free,  and  masterly  style  is 
the  truer  expression  of  his  individuality ;  but  it  is  curious 
to  note  how  wide  the  difference  is  between  his  pictures 
admittedly  painted  under  Pre-Raphaelite  influence  and 
those  of  to-day. 

The  influence  of  the  school  has  extended  by  now 
beyond  our  own  country,  and  is  obviously  apparent  in 
the  pictures  of  many  Dutch,  Belgian,  and  French  artists ; 
and  although  a  consideration  of  the  work  of  this  Con- 
tinental following  cannot  be  undertaken  here,  allusion 
may  be  made  to  the  work  of  a  Frenchman,  who  practised 
so  long  in  this  country  as  to  be  legitimately  included 
among  English  artists.  The  versatile  and  popuh 
painter,  James  Tissot,  at  one  time  distinctly  fell  under 
the  spell  of  the  Brotherhood  and  their  followers,  and  such 
pictures  as  The  Triumph  of  Will,  and  The  Convalescem 
are  as  Pre-Raphaelite,  both  in  conception  and  execution, 
as  may  be ;  the  flowers  to  which  The  Convalescent  stretches 
out  a  weak  hand  might  almost  have  bloomed  in  the  garden 
of  Mariana  or  the  meadows  of  the  Hireling  Shepherd. 

In  the  case  of  nearly  all  the  artists  alluded  to  thus 
briefly  in  this  chapter,  the  tendency  to  Pre-Raphaelism 
was  a  youthful  one,  and,  though  its  results  are  still  more 
or  less  evident  in  their  work,  it  has  been  ostensibly 
abandoned  by  all  in  later  years.  But  the  reverse  was 
the  case  with  another  painter  of  note,  John  Frederick 




W.  M'TAGGART,   R.S.A. 

THE    THORN    IN    THE    FOOT 

J.  F.   LEWIS  91 

Lewis,  R.A.,  who,  though  not  of  them,  must  still  be 
placed  beside  the  Pre-Raphaelite  painters.  Born  in 
1805,  in  his  earlier  years  he  was  known  as  "Spanish 
Lewis,"  from  the  source  of  his  artistic  inspiration  ;  but,  at 
the  age  of  forty-five,  after  many  unproductive  years  spent 
in  the  East,  he  spontaneously  developed  a  new  style 
almost  absolutely  coincident  as  to  date  with  the  first 
manifestations  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  spirit  in  the  work  of 
Millais  and  Holman  Hunt,  and  almost  identical  as  to 
manner.  Extreme  elaboration  and  complexity  of  drawing, 
splendid  colour  and  breadth  of  effect,  mark  the  superb 
work  of  this  latest  period  ;  while,  saturated  through  many 
years'  residence  in  the  East  with  the  spirit  of  Orientalism, 
there  is  a  richness  and  sumptuousness  of  effect  shown 
throughout  these  pictures  that  place  them  in  a  class  by 
themselves.  His  diploma  picture,  The  Door  of  a  Cafe  in 
Cairo,  is  a  good  example  of  his  art ;  even  finer  is  the 
Lilium  Auratum,  which  shows  a  richly  attired  Odalisque 
and  her  attendant  in  the  garden  of  a  hareem,  the  lady 
holding  a  costly  vase  with  red  and  white  roses  in  it,  while 
the  young  girl,  evidently  amused  at  something,  also 
carries  flowers  from  the  wilderness  of  lilies,  poppies, 
pansies,  and  fuchsias,  through  which  they  have  come  to 
the  rose-covered  doorway  of  the  garden.  Other  pictures 
by  this  painter,  The  Doubtful  Coin,  The  Turkish  School, 
A  Street  Scene  in  Cairo,  The  Arab  Scribe,  The  Hareem, 
show  the  same  richness  and  elaboration,  the  same  daring 
juxtaposition  of  colour  and  skill  in  rendering  textures,  but 
in  a  brief  epitome  like  this  space  forbids  a  full  considera- 
tion of  his  art.  It  is  true  that  his  wonderful  pictures,  full 
of  jewel-like  colour  and  superb  handling,  call  for  more 
careful  notice,  but  this  brief  account  must  suffice,  although 
another  allusion  may  perhaps  be  permitted  in  conclusion 
to  the  remarkable  fact  that,  at  the  age  of  forty-five  Lewis 
developed  a  new  method,  which  he  consistently  practised 


to  the  end,  entirely  akin  to  that  evolved  by  the  ardent 
youths  who  initiated  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood. 

In  closing  this  section  it  may  be  well,  in  consequence 
of  the  double  meaning  that  is  now  unavoidably  associated 
with  the  word  Pre-Raphaelite,  to  point  out  a  fact  which 
is  evident  from  the  reproductions  of  the  pictures  described 
in  the  last  two  chapters — namely,  that  the  paintings  of 
the  artists  just  treated  of  do  not  show  as  a  whole,  or  in 
any  marked  degree,  the  dominance  of  the  later  work  of 
Rossetti  (as  the  pictures  of  Simeon  Solomon  and  Burne- 
Jones    admittedly    do),    but    display    very    clearly    the 
Pre-Raphaelite  ideal  as  expressed  by  Millais  and  Holm; 
Hunt.     This,  as  has  already  been  said,  is  the  narrowei 
and  truer  meaning  of  the  term,  and   the  works  of  the! 
artists  have  been  grouped  together  because  they  displa] 
the    influence    of    the    creed    as    originally    enunciatec 
and    followed    by    the    members    of    the    Brotherhood 
succeeding   chapters   will    exhibit   the  other   use  of  th< 
word    in    dealing    with    the    school    initiated    by    Dante 
Rossetti  and  continued  by  Burne-Jones — a  tradition  ol 
style  rather  than  an  artistic  creed.     This  is  a  tradition 
that  exists  in  connection  with  certain   types  of  beauty, 
that  implies  poetry  of  conception  and  sumptuousness  of 
presentment  as  shown  in  purely  ideal  works ;  the  other 
was  a  doctrine  which  insisted  upon  absolute  veracity  and 
sincerity  in  the  depiction  of  actualities,  as  an  essential  of 
living  art. 

J.    F.    LEWIS,    R.A, 




ELIGIOUS  subjects  scarcely  seem  to  have  appealed 
to  the  majority  of  the  Pre-Raphaelites  in  the  same 
y  that  romantic  and  poetic  conceptions  did  ;  but  to  one 
them  at  least  it  has  been  as  great  a  source  of  inspiration 
to  Sir  Noel  Paton.  Frederic  Shields,  like  Arthur 
ughes,  has  been  content  to  do  his  life's  work  in  the 
quietest  and  most  unassuming  manner,  so  that  few  people 
j  know  what  the  extent  of  that  work  is ;  a  result  due, 
perhaps,  to  the  fact  that  in  pictorial  art,  in  the  strictest 
|  sense  of  the  word,  he  has  done  comparatively  little, 
though  as  a  decorator  he  takes  very  high  rank.  His 
illustrations  to  Bunyan's  "  Pilgrim's  Progress "  showed 
marked  power  and  originality,  and  that  earnestness  which 
has  been  the  characteristic  of  his  art  as  of  his  life  from 
boyhood  onwards.  His  first  effort  from  the  life,  he  says, 
was  a  portrait  of  his  mother,  done  in  "true  Byzantine 
style,"  but  it  was  long  before  he  found  his  true  vocation 
as  a  religious  decorative  designer ;  and  while  the  very 
beautiful  work  that  he  has  accomplished  in  the  private 
chapels  of  Sir  W.  H.  Houldsworth  at  Kilmarnock  (illus- 
trating The  Triumph  of  Faith)  and  the  Duke  of  West- 
minster at  Eaton  Hall  (from  the  Te  Deum  Laudamus),  in 
glass  and  mosaic,  is  but  little  known,  the  fine  series  of  wall 


decorations  that  adorn  the  chapel  in  the  Bayswater  Road 
are  accessible  to  all,  and  by  these  the  artist  can  be  judged. 
The  one  that  is  illustrated  in  this  volume  is  Jonah,  in 
which  the  prophet,  to  quote  the  artist's  own  words, 
"appears  as  rising  out  of  the  jaws  of  the  sea  monster, 
which,  turned  upon  its  back,  its  life-blood  gurgling  from 
its  nostrils,  dies  in  the  disgorgement  of  its  prey,  even  as 
its  great  antitype,  Christ  Jesus,  by  submitting  to  be 
swallowed  up,  of  death,  destroyed  'him  that  had  the 
power  of  death,  that  is,  the  devil.'  The  sea-weeds  that 
make  a  chaplet  about  his  brow  allude  to  his  own  prayer: 
'The  depths  closed  me  round  about,  the  weeds  were 
wrapped  about  my  head.' "  The  religious  turn  of 
this  painter's  mind  is  evinced  by  other  works — Christ 
and  Peter,  The  Good  Shepherd,  Love  and  Time,  and 
Solomon  Eagle,  among  others ;  the  last  subject  taken 
from  "  Old  St  Paul's,"  being  a  sermon  on  the  text  "  Arise, 
or  be  for  ever  fallen,"  and  shows  the  half-demented  en- 
thusiast who,  with  his  burning  brazier,  went  through 
London  during  the  great  plague,  denouncing  the  evil- 
doing  of  the  people  and  exhorting  them  to  repentance. 
Of  Frederic  Shields  it  has  been  well  said  that  "  he  is  an 
artist  in  every  nerve  ;  but  he  is  much  more."  His  own 
creed  is  that  art  demands  sanctification,  and  that  purity  of 
heart  and  mind  are  essential  to  the  production  of  noble 
results,  and,  added  to  this  reverence  of  soul  and  sincerity 
of  purpose,  he  possesses  artistic  powers  of  no  mean  order ; 
the  consequence  is  that,  though  all  his  life  he  has  practised 
his  art  within  certain  narrow  limits,  within  those  self-set 
bounds  his  work,  firm  in  drawing,  exalted  and  vigorous  in 
conception,  is  characteristic  of  the  man. 

Another  decorator  who  must  be  included  among  the 
Pre-Raphaelites,  although  the  influences  to  be  discerned 
in  his  work  are  many,  is  Walter  Crane.  Born  in  Liverpool 
in  1835,  his  father  was  a  miniature  painter  of  ability,  as 







'ell  as  a  practitioner  in  oils,  and  the  son  at  a  very  tender 
ge,  evinced  a  strong  artistic  tendency.     So  early  as  the 
ge  of  twelve,  when  Millais's  Sir  Isumbras  at  the  Ford  was 
anging  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  the  year  1857,  the  boy's 
mpathies  were  attracted  by  the  colour,  the  poetry,  and 
e  style  of  this  great  work  ;  and  this  accordance  of  feeling 
tween  Walter  Crane    and  the  Pre-Raphaelite  painters 
as    existed    from    that  day  to  this,  for  it  is  only  quite 
ently  that  he    showed  a  work,    Summer,  depicting  a 
arming  maiden  reclining  among  the  ox-eye  daisies  in  a 
ay-field,  which  is  as  thoroughly  Pre-Raphaelite  a  piece 
f  painting  as  can  be  desired.     But  although  so  early  as 
862  he  showed  a  picture  at  the  Academy  (an  event  only 
nee  repeated    in   Mr   Crane's   career,   when  in    1872   a 
icture   of  his   was   hung),   for   some  years  yet  he  was 
student  rather  than  a  practising  artist.     Heatherley's  in 
ewman  Street,  and  the  studio  of  W.  S.  Linton,  the  wood 
graver  (to  whom  he  was    apprenticed),  were  his  chief 
hools ;  and  from  this  basis,  influenced  now  by  Japanese 
rt,    now    by    Renaissance,    now    by   the    English    Pre- 
aphaelites,  and  now  by  the  Greek  marbles,  he  evolved 
at  definite  and  individual  style  of  his  which  is  known 
and   wide.      The   decorative   work    he   has   done   is 
normous,  and  the  mediums  he  has  practised  in  are  too 
any  to  enumerate ;  but  through  all  the  products  of  his 
tense  activity  runs  the  characteristic  method,  original, 
otent,    artistic.      But   of   his    designs    for   pottery   and 
brics,  for  books  and   metal  works,   it  is  impossible  to 
peak  here ;  and  but  briefly  can  allusion  be  made  to  the 
ictures  that  have  come    from    his  easel  with  unfailing 
gularity.      The  Sirens,  which  was  shown  at  the  Grosvenor 
allery  in   1879,  is  a  very  typical  piece  of  his  work,  in 
hich  the  principal  place  in  a  very  delicate  colour  scheme 
f  pale  orange  and  blue  is,  of  course,  given  to  the  suave 
jind  graceful  forms  of  the  three  malign  sisters  who,  dancing 


on  the  sea-shore,  seek  to  lure  the  shipmates  of  Odysseus 
from  their  high-prowed  bark  to  a  cruel  doom.  Later,  in 
1882,  The  Roll  of  Fate,  a  subject  from  the  Rubaiyat  of 
Omar  Khayyam,  was  shown,  in  which  the  artist  depicts 
a  winged  messenger,  who  kneels  at  the  feet  of  Fate,  and 
strives  in  vain  to  make  that  "stern  recorder"  cease 
his  writing  on  the  scroll.  The  flowing  lines  of  the 
picture,  the  colour  of  marble  steps,  golden  throne,  pearly 
wings,  and  distant  sea,  and  the  rhythmical  feeling  per- 
vading the  whole  composition  combine  to  make  a  beautiful 
piece  of  decoration.  Earlier  than  these  were  Ormuzd  and 
Ariman,  The  Red  Cross  Knight  in  Search  of  Una,  Endy- 
mion,  A  Daughter  of  the  Vine,  and  others ;  while  succeeding 
years  brought  Diana  and  the  Shepherd,  The  Bridge  of  Life 
(a  simple  and  telling  allegory),  Pandora,  and  Freedom ; 
while  of  a  still  later  date  may  be  mentioned  Neptune's 
Horses,  The  Rainbow  and  the  Wave,  that  very  noble  com- 
position, The  Chariots  of  the  Hours,  and  the  delightful 
Renascence  of  Venus. 

Every  credit  must  be  given  to  the  artist  for  his  enor- 
mous fecundity,  and  the  industry  which  enables  him  to 
accomplish  so  much  ;  but  hasty  production,  and  especially 
over-production  (a  fault  that  many  think  that  Walter  Crane 
must  plead  guilty  to),  have  manifold  disadvantages.  Grace 
of  composition,  skilful  disposition  of  forms,  draperies,  and 
accessories,  and  flowing  beauty  of  line,  are  such  constant 
elements  in  his  work  that  we  accept  them  as  a  matter  of 
course,  and  are  not  always  duly  grateful ;  but  hurry 
begets  carelessness,  it  results  in  draughtmanship  that  is 
not  always  irreproachable,  and  colour  that  is  not  always 
happy ;  and  though  the  artist  has  an  uninterrupted  flow 
of  ideas,  he  cannot  possibly  carry  them  all  to  completion, 
however  industrious  he  may  be.  The  consequence  is,  that, 
although  all  painters  may  be  said  to  repeat  themselves 
more  or  less,  in  Walter  Crane's  case  style  is  apt  to 


THE    ROLL    OF    FATE 

W.  BELL  SCOTT  97 

degenerate  into  mannerism,  the  literary  element  is  perhaps 
unduly  obtruded,  and  the  decorative  charm  which  may 
well  be  an  underlying  constituent  in  all  pictures,  becomes 
the  dominant  element.  These  easel  paintings,  judged  as 
such,  are  not  altogether  satisfying,  though  considered  as 
decoration,  they  have  very  great  beauty  and  charm.  The 
artist  himself  does  not  draw  "  any  hard  and  fast  line 
between  pictorial  work  and  other  work,"  and  his  practice 
is  consistent  with  this  attitude ;  but  critics  who  do  not  care 
for  allegory,  who  think  that  pictures  should  show  relief 
and  express  atmospheric  values,  naturally  say  that  com- 
positions which  lack  these  essentials,  which  depend  upon 
their  literary  appeal  and  their  pleasing  arrangements  of 
line,  can  only  be  considered  as  decorative  and  not  as 
pictorial  art.  But  even  if,  considered  pictorially,  the 
artist's  work  does  not  appeal  to  all,  it  cannot  be  denied 
that,  decoratively,  Walter  Crane's  achievement  is  very 
fine,  spirited,  imaginative,  well-balanced,  and  thoroughly 

One  other  artist  who  should  be  alluded  to  in  this  con- 
nection is  William  Bell  Scott,  inasmuch  as  his  chief  work 
consisted  of  more  than  one  series  of  mural  decorations ; 
and  he  displays  his  powers  more  adequately  in  these  than 
|in  some  of  the  easel  pictures  he  painted.     He  was  born  at 
[Edinburgh  in  1811,  and  died  at  Penkill  in  1890,  leaving 
L  posthumously-published  autobiography  which  aroused  a 
[considerable  amount  of  feeling  among  his  contemporaries, 
is  brother  was  the  erratic  and  original  genius,  David 
cott,    and    from    him    and    their    father,    a   well-known 
graver,  his  first  artistic  instruction  was  obtained.    Later, 
e  "  Trustee's  Academy  "  and  the  British  Museum  were 
he  fields  in  which  he  worked,  and  from   1840  onwards 
e  find  him  occasionally  exhibiting  at  various  London 
alleries.     Of  his  oil  paintings  a  typical  example  is  The 
Eve  vf  the  Deluge,  now  in  the  National  Gallery,  in  which 


we  see  a  princely  personage,  sitting  on  a  terrace  sur- 
rounded by  his  attendants,  while  tiger  cubs  gambol  at  his 
feet,  and  the  empty  goblet  he  holds,  and  the  harp  in  the 
hands  of  a  slave,  denote  the  recent  feast.  On  the  balcony 
burns  a  jar  of  incense,  and  in  the  middle  distance  the 
family  of  Noah  are  entering  the  ark,  while  from  the 
horizon  rises  a  cloud,  dark,  and  foreboding  destruction. 

But  his  most  notable  productions  were  the  two  series 
of  mural  paintings  he  executed,  the  one  at  Penkill  Castle, 
illustrating  The  King's  Quhair,  and  the  other  at  Walling- 
ton,  an  old  manor-house  in  Northumberland.     Here,  on 
the  walls  of  a  cortile,  he  painted  a  set  of  eight  large  com- 
positions illustrative  of  scenes  from  Northumbrian  history, 
two  of  the  most  striking  being  those  which  depict  King 
Egfrid  offering  the  Bishopric  of  Hexham  to  St  Cuthbert 
and  The  Death  of  Bede.     This  last  shows  the  death  of  the 
venerable  monk  as  he  finished  the  dictation  of  his  trans- 
lation of  the  Gospel  of  St  John.     Sorrow-stricken  brethrei 
support  his  frame  ;  pigeons,  types  of  dissolution,  are  flyinj 
through  the  open  windows,  and  the  gusty  wind  has  jusl 
blown  out  the  candle.     It  is  a  striking  composition,  th( 
work  of  a  man  who  was  poet  as  well  as  painter,  and  wh< 
in  his  art  was  probably  influenced  (if  his  self-centred  mint 
was  influenced  at  all)  by  the  painting  of  Ford   Mado: 
Brown,  rather  than  by  that  of  Dante  Rossetti,  who  was  his 
more  intimate  friend.     With  the  cartoons  and  frescoes 
the  former  artist  his  mural  decorations  certainly  seem  t( 
show  an  affinity ;  and,  while  not  always  free  from  fault 
of  drawing,  his  work  is  possessed  of  no  mean  power 
vigorous    presentment,    and    there    are    certain    novelties 
of  conception    and    a    freedom    from    convention    in    his 
productions  that  are  distinctly  attractive. 



THE  two  artists  whose  work  has   given  rise  to  the 
popular  use  of  the  word  Pre-Raphaelite,  as  against 
e  legitimate  use  of  the  term,  are  undoubtedly  Rossetti 
and  Burne-Jones.     The  proper  application  of  the  word  to 
xpress  the  aim  of  a  group  of  artists  who  went  straight  to 
e  fount  of  Nature  for  teaching  and  inspiration,  rather 
han  imbibing  them  from  the  polluted  source  of  the  con- 
ention  of  the  schools,  became  perverted  to  express  (and 
till  does  convey  to  the  popular  mind)  the  style  of  the  two 
at  poetic  painters  who  respectively  inaugurated  and 
arried   on   a  new  and   individual   kind  of  art.     This  is 
ccounted  for  by  the  fact  that  in  the  case  of  these  two 
rtists  (maybe  the  most  original  spirits  of  all  who  were 
nnected    with    the    movement)    the   principles  of  Pre- 
phaelism  were  applied  to  a  class  of  picture  but  little 
nown  previous  to  their  time,  pictures  of  pure  romance, 
;of  wonderland.     The  public  knew  that  the  painters  of 
(these   pictures,   now   mystical    and   wan,   now   opulently 
beautiful,  but  with  the  same  exotic  vein  of  poetry  running 
through  all,  were  classed  as  belonging  to  the  Pre-Raphael- 
jites,   and   so   the   adjective  became   almost  synonymous 
With  "Romantic,"  and  still  continues,  for  even  to-day  one 
may   hear   classed    as    "Pre-Raphaelite"   pictures  which 
;bear  no  affinity  to  the  work  of  the  Brotherhood  except 
in   the   chance   choice   of  subjects   from   the   realms    of 
romance  and  fantasy. 


For  this  reason  it  may  be  well  to  insist  once  more  that 
Sir  Edward  Burne-Jones  was  a  Pre-Raphaelite,  not  by 
reason  of  his  choice  of  subjects  from  that  world  which  is 
"out  of  space  and  out  of  time,"  but  from  the  consistent 
adherence  he  gave  to  the  principles  of  honesty  and 
sincerity  enunciated  by  the  Brotherhood ;  disdaining  alike 
the  artifices  of  the  schools  and  the  trickeries  of  prevalent 
art,  he  sought  to  be  himself,  and  to  put  into  each  canvas 
that  left  his  easel  the  best  that  was  in  him.  The  career 
of  this  great  painter  was  indeed  a  remarkable  example  of 
unperverted  directness  of  aim,  of  consistently  strenuous 
endeavour,  and  of  successful  achievement  along  the  indi- 
vidual lines  laid  down  by  himself.  Uninfluenced  by 
contemporary  art  when  once  he  set  a  goal  before  him, 
throughout  a  long  artistic  career  he  was  true  to  his 
principles,  and  the  consequence  is  that  his  life's  work 
forms  an  accomplished  and  coherent  whole,  in  which 
can  be  traced  growth,  development,  and  fruition. 

He  was  born  at  Birmingham  in  1833,  and  was  of  Welsh 
descent  on  his  father's  side.  There  are  those  who  see  in 
his  works  of  mystery  and  romance  the  pictorial  expression 
of  the  poetic  soul  of  the  Celtic  race,  and  this  may  be  so. 
He  was  the  first  member  of  his  family  to  display  any 
artistic  inclination,  and  this  artistic  tendency  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  evident  during  his  schooldays,  or, 
indeed, -until  he  met  at  Exeter  College,  Oxford,  in  1852, 
a  young  Welshman  named  William  Morris,  who  had  come 
up  to  the  University  intending,  as  did  Burne-Jones  at 
that  date,  to  enter  the  Church.  The  acquaintance  which 
ensued  grew  rapidly,  thanks  to  a  deep  sympathy  in 
literary  and  artistic  matters,  and  developed  into  a  friend- 
ship of  lifelong  duration ;  and  their  smouldering  aspirations 
needed  but  a  spark  to  set  them  ablaze.  This  spark  came 
from  a  sight  of  a  woodcut  of  Dante  Rossetti's  and  a  water- 
colour  drawing  by  the  same  artist,  Dante  drawing  the 





%ce  of  Beatrice.  The  poetic  fancy  and  rich  colouring  of 
is  charming  little  picture — then  in  the  possession  of  Mr 
pombe  of  Oxford — appealed  irresistibly  to  the  admiration 
|»f  both,  and  together  they  resolved  to  embark  on  an 
rtistic  career.  To  the  answering  chord  in  the  heart  of 
5urne-Jones  that  responded  to  the  dream  of  Rossetti,  the 
•orld  was  to  owe  in  later  years  such  pictures  as  The  Briar 
lose  series,  and  The  Beguiling  of  Merlin.  It  was  in  the 
ear  1855  that  the  young  undergraduate  came  up  to 
.ondon  with  the  intention  of  seeking  out  the  painter 
rhose  work  he  deemed  so  admirable ;  and  Rossetti,  when 
e  saw  the  dainty  imagination  and  the  feeling  for  beauty 
i  the  drawings  submitted  to  him,  urged  the  untaught  lad 
:>  drop  all  idea  of  taking  his  degree,  and  to  devote  himself 
ntirely  to  art.  This  was  done,  and  for  some  years  there 
as  constant  intercourse  between  the  two  young  men. 
Lossetti  (who,  it  must  be  remembered,  was  only  five  years 
le  senior  of  the  other)  was  doubtless  not  the  best  leader 

>  follow  in  the  technical  matters  of  art ;  and  Burne-Jones, 
ho  was  already  twenty-three,  had  to  set  himself  resolutely 

>  work  at  the  drudgery  of  the  rudiments  to  make  up  for 
>st  years.     But,  if  the  older  artist  was  not  at  his  best  as 

teacher  of  drawing,  he  was  an  ideal  friend  as  regards 
ispiration ;  no  one  was  more  fitted  to  encourage  and 
ssist  the  development  of  the  mystic  and  spiritual  art 
hich  is  inalienably  associated  with  the  name  of  Burne- 

It  is  usual  to  say  that  the  ascendancy  of  Rossetti  is 
rident  in  the  work  of  his  pupil,  and  this  is  true  in  such 
ictures  as  Sidonia  von  Bork>  and  Clara  von  Bork, 
ater-colour  illustrations  of  Meinhold's  romance,  which 
light  almost  be  taken  for  Rossetti's  own  work.  But  it 
ould  not  be  correct  to  conclude,  from  the  similarity  of 
noice  of  subject  and  poetic  aspect  which  pervades  the 
fork  of  both  artists,  that  the  elder  painter  imposed  his 


personality  on  that  of  the  younger;  rather  one  must 
think  of  them  as  kindred  souls  who  were  fortunate  enough 
to  meet  early  in  life,  and  to  mutually  inspire  and  influence 
each  other.  Another  example  of  the  period  when  Burne 
Jones  based  much  work  on  that  of  his  leader  is  the  picture 
of  The  Backgammon  Players,  a  knight  and  lady  sitting 
with  the  board  between  them  in  a  garden  of  flowers, 
fenced  in  with  a  trellis  of  roses.  This  little  work  is 
redolent  of  the  art  of  Rossetti,  but  that  this  influence  was 
neither  paramount  nor  permanent  is  evident  from  an 
extremely  beautiful  and  individual  drawing  completed  in 
1863  (the  year  after  The  Backgammon  Players),  and 
called  The  Merciful  Knight.  This  charming  and  tender 
work  illustrates  the  old  Florentine  legend  of  S.  Giovanni 
Gualberto,  the  knight  of  old  who  rode  out  on  Good 
Friday  to  avenge  his  brother's  death,  but  spared  his 
enemy  and  forgave  him  when  he  asked  for  mercy  in  the 
name  of  Christ  who  had  died  on  the  cross  on  that  day. 
Later,  as  on  the  hill  of  San  Miniato  the  merciful  knight 
knelt  before  the  wayside  crucifix,  the  carven  effigy  of  the 
Saviour  bent  to  kiss  him,  and  the  miracle  moved  him  to 
abandon  the  profession  of  arms  for  a  holy  life. 

A  long  series  of  works  in  oils,  tempera,  water-colour, 
and  other  mediums  came  from  this  artist's  studio  during 
the  course  of  the  succeeding  years ;  and  a  multitude  of 
wonderful  and  beautiful  studies  in  all  mediums,  and 
scores  of  cartoons  for  stained  glass,  mosaic,  and  tapestry, 
attest  his  unceasing  industry.  Allusion  can  only  be  made 
to  the  titles  of  a  few  pictures  which  are  typical  in  one  way 
or  another;  those  who  have  seen  them  will  need  no 
description  to  recall  such  works  as  Green  Summer,  The 
Wine  of  Circe,  Le  Chant  d?  Amour,  The  Annunciation 
(this  theme  was  more  than  once  chosen,  the  interpretations 
being  quite  different),  Love  among  the  Ruins,  The  Mill, 
The  Wheel  of  Fortune,  the  Pygmalion  series,  Cupid  and 




*syche,  Pan  and  Psyche,  The  Days  of  Creation,  The 
beguiling  of  Merlin,  The  Feast  of  Peleus,  The  Mirror 
>f  Venus,  Laus  Veneris,  The  Golden  Stairs,  Dies  Domini, 
King  Cophetua  and  the  Beggar  Maid,  Perseus  and  the 
Iraice,  and  The  Depths  of  the  Sea.  The  contrast  between 
tie  rich  play  of  colour,  as  of  a  casket  of  jewels,  in  such 
>ictures  as  Le  Chant  d  Amour,  and  Laus  Veneris  (works 
f  the  artist's  middle  period),  and  the  almost  monochrome 
oloration  of  the  large  Annunciation,  and  Perseus  and  the 
Iraice  (which  are  of  later  date),  is  more  than  enough  to 
imaze ;  and  the  artist's  versatility  in  matters  of  technique 
s  displayed  in  such  work  as  the  highly-wrought  Feast  of 
Deleus  and  the  broadly-conceived  Love  among  the  Ruins, 
low,  alas !  no  longer  existing  in  the  first  and  finer  version. 
It  would  be  very  difficult  to  single  out  as  typical  any 
ixample  of  the  painter's  work ;  it  is,  as  a  whole,  so 
ompact  together  by  the  ubiquitous  evidence  of  his 
>ersonal  genius,  and  so  varied  in  theme  and  method  by 
he  necessities  of  each  individual  conception.  Love 
imong  the  Ruins  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  creations 
hat  ever  came  even  from  the  fecund  brain  of  Burne- 
ones ;  it  shows  lovers  who  have  met  among  the  ruins  of 
,n  ancient  city,  grass-grown  ruins  with  the  wild  briar 
railing  thorny  stems  over  fallen  column  and  sculptured 
rieze.  The  girl,  clad  in  a  robe  of  brilliant  hue,  clings  to 
he  neck  of  her  lover ;  and  her  face,  despite  his  protecting 
>resence,  bears  the  impress  of  the  pity  and  fear  excited 
n  her  mind  by  the  surrounding  evidence  of  "  old  unhappy 
ar-off  things,  and  battles  long  ago."  The  expression  of 
he  varying  emotions  in  the  lovers'  faces,  and  the  vague 
ndication  of  the  tragedy  that  culminated  in  the  desolation 
>f  such  a  palatial  city,  haunt  the  memory  of  the  beholder, 
ong  after  the  details  of  the  picture  may  be  forgotten. 
Vtay  there  not  have  been,  too,  in  the  artist's  mind,  the 
;econdary  interpretation  which  may  be  read  into  the 


work,  the  everlasting  existence  of  love,  its  sweetness  and 
sadness,  though  nations  fall  and  the  kingdoms  of  the 
earth  pass  away  ? 

Equally  characteristic  of  Burne-Jones's  art  is  the 
sumptuous  Laus  Veneris,  which  depicts  a  royally  beauti- 
ful woman,  attired  in  marvellous  flame-coloured  robes, 
who  reclines  pale  and  weary  in  the  ecstacy  of  her 
love-sickness  in  a  chamber  hung  with  tapestries  wrought 
in  green  and  blue  and  gold.  Her  hand-maidens,  richly 
dight,  stand  and  sing  the  praise  of  Venus,  Queen  of  Love, 
from  scrolls  of  music,  to  charm  their  mistress's  dark 
mood  away ;  while  outside,  five  knights  rein  in  their 
horses,  regarding  with  eager  eyes  the  wan  queen,  and 
listening  to  the  damsels'  song.  Brilliant  in  colour  as  a 
mediaeval  illumination,  ardent  and  intense  in  feeling,  this 
picture  is  as  decoratively  beautiful  as  it  is  poetically 

The  technique  of  the  painter  has  already  been  alluded 
to.  He  was  a  most  delicate  and  careful  draughtsman, 
revelling  in  the  subtle  curves  of  the  human  form,  and  the 
gentle  flow  of  draperies ;  and  though  the  construction  of 
his  pictures  was  rather  a  matter  of  the  sway  of  lines,  of 
the  building  up  of  a  well-ordered  decorative  design,  than 
of  the  inevitable  and  necessary  form  which  the  com- 
position was  bound  to  take,  there  are  evidences  in  all 
parts  of  his  work  of  an  unrivalled  wealth  of  invention 
supported  by  irreproachable  drawing.  A  better  instance 
of  Burne-Jones's  simpler  compositions  could  not  be 
named  than  The  Mill,  in  which  the  figures  of  the  dancing 
maidens,  their  rhythmic  poise  and  sweep,  their  suave  and 
stately  movements,  are  very  characteristic;  while  of  the 
more  complex  schemes  that  he  sometimes  planned,  a 
good  example  is  Cupid's  Hunting  Ground.  In  much  of  his 
work  the  involution  of  the  thought  is  often  paralleled  by  the 
intricacy  of  the  rendering ;  and  the  fertility  of  his  invention 






showed  itself  not  only  in  the  richness  of  the  conception, 
but  in  the  lavishness  of  detail  and  symbol  with  which  it  was 
illustrated.  Where  he  desired  rich  colour,  the  pigments 
are  used  to  produce  lovely  patches  of  brilliance,  which 
give  rather  the  effect  of  a  mosaic  of  tints,  than  a  subtly 
ordered  harmony  pervading  the  whole  scheme ;  where  he 
worked  in  subdued  shades  the  infinite  variety  and  play 
that  he  attained  is  very  remarkable.  Dash  and  bravura 
of  execution  were,  of  course,  far  outside  the  limits  he  set 
himself;  his  pride  was  that  every  portion  of  his  work  bore 
evidence  of  loving  care  and  patient  labour,  and  the  result 
is  that  his  pictures  are  gems  of  beautiful  craftsmanship, 
enshrining  marvels  of  delicate  inspiration. 

Almost  invariably  the  subjects  of  Burne-Jones's  works 
were  drawn  from  the  regions  of  old  romance,  sweet 
egend,  or  poetic  fable ;  magic  and  enchantment  seem  to 
fill  the  atmosphere  of  his  pictures;  love  potions  and 
spells  are  natural  to  this  dim  fairyland,  far  removed  from 
the  workaday  world.  His  great  decorative  gift  enabled 
him  to  express  in  beautiful  compositions  the  vivid  scenes 
his  superb  imagination  conjured  up,  and  whether  the 
subject  was  drawn  from  classic  legend  or  the  realms  of 
mediaeval  tradition,  the  field  in  which  he  conceived  the  inci- 
dents as  occurring  was  one  to  which  he  alone  had  the  key. 
All  through  his  long  career  he  was  constant  to  one  ideal, 
and  that  ideal  he  expressed  perfectly.  Weird,  fanciful, 
imystical,  splendid,  and  dainty  as  are  his  dreams,  it  is  not 
to  be  wondered  at  that  to  many  his  sexless  figures  and 
iwan  faces  seem  morbid  and  unpleasing ;  but  whether  the 
jatmosphere  of  a  world  of  enchantment  and  wonders  is 
jnecessarily  poisonous  because  the  fresh  breeze  of  actuality 
idoes  not  blow  across  its  meadows  is  open  to  doubt ;  and 
[he  would  be  a  bold  man  who  would  affirm  that  the  ex- 
Ipression  of  a  mind  gifted  beyond  the  normal  must  be 
; unhealthy.  Certainly,  if  it  is  the  function  of  art  to  invent, 


to  create  beautiful  unknown  things,  Burne-Jones  was  a 
great  artist,  though  what  place  he  occupies  in  the  hierarchy 
of  art  it  would  be  difficult  to  say.  His  genius  can  be 
fairly  compared  only  with  that  of  one  man,  his  master, 
Dante  Rossetti,  and  in  relation  to  the  art  of  his  leader, 
his  own  might  almost  be  said  to  be  "  as  is  moonlight  unto 
sunshine,  as  is  water  unto  wine."  Rossetti's  temper  was 
essentially  vigorous,  sensuous,  and  luxuriant,  in  the 
highest  degree ;  Burne-Jones,  always  a  dreamer  and  a 
mystic,  was  often  ascetic ;  a  fertile  and  delicate  fancy  in 
his  case  took  the  place  of  the  opulent  imagination  of  the 
senior  artist.  But  it  is  not  right  to  push  too  far  a  contrast 
between  the  two  artists ;  they  were  not  opposites,  rather 
should  they  be  considered  as  complementary  one  to  the 

The  reputation  of  a  great  artist  is  not  affected  by  the 
honours  of  which  he  was  the  recipient ;  and  the  medals, 
the  university  degrees,  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honour, 
the  associateship  of  the  Royal  Academy  (conferred  in 
1885,  resigned  in  1893),  and  finally  the  baronetcy  that 
was  bestowed  upon  him,  do  not  affect  the  critical  esteem 
of  this  or  future  generations ;  but  it  is  pleasant  to  think 
that,  though  many  fine  artists  go  to  their  graves  utterly 
unrecognised,  the  subject  of  this  chapter  reaped  his  full 
reward  in  his  lifetime. 






J.    M.    STRUDWICK 
T.    M.    ROOKE 

MORE    or   less    contemporary   with    the   two    great 
pioneers,    Rossetti    and    Burne-Jones,   a   group   of 
irtists  have  worked  who  derived  their  inspiration  almost 
ntirely  from  one  or  other  of  these  painters.     Though 
hey  may  be  legitimately  spoken  of  as  disciples,  it  must 
lot   be  concluded   that  they  are  by  any  means   servile 
jfollowers  of  their  leaders ;  each  of  them  is  too  individual 
^.n  artist  to  be  a  mere  echo ;  although  it  is  almost  always 
the  fate  of  a  painter  to  be  classed  as  an  imitator,  who 
finds  that  the  method  and  style  best  adapted  to  the  em- 
jbodiment  of  his  ideas  have  been  used  and  developed  by  a 

The  work  of  Spencer  Stanhope,  the  friend  and  fellow- 
worker  of  both  Rossetti  and  Burne-Jones,  bears,  as  might 
jbe  expected,  distinct  traces  of  this  association ;  but  the 
influence  of  Mr  G.  F.  Watts,  R.  A.,  who  also  gave  him 
instruction  and  guidance,  is  apparent  as  well.  A  prefer- 
ence for  religious  and  allegorical,  as  well  as  romantic 
themes,  is  evident  in  his  pictures,  which  have  largely 
taken  the  form  of  panels  for  church  decoration,  executed 


as  accessories  to  the  architectural  work  of  Mr  G. 
Bodley,  A.R.A.  Pre-Raphaelite  from  association,  he  is  also 
Pre-Raphaelite  in  his  adherence  to  primitive  methods  of 
work,  for  in  the  pictures  which  he  has  painted  in  tempera 
(in  which  style  he  has  worked  as  freely  as  in  oils  or  water- 
colours),  he  adopted  the  early  Italian  system  of  using  the 
yolk  of  eggs  as  a  medium,  a  method  demanding  extreme 
care  and  patience.  The  Shulamite,  Charon  and  Psyche, 
Eve,  Patience  on  a  Monument,  and  The  Waters  of  Lethe 
are  among  the  most  noteworthy  of  his  pictures,  and  the 
latter  may  be  taken  as  typical.  The  classic  title  was 
adopted  (although  the  character  of  the  picture  is  by  no 
means  classical),  as  most  suitable  for  the  allegory  of 
humanity  hurrying  to  cast  off  its  burden  and  seek  rest  in 
the  grave.  The  passage  of  the  water  symbolises  death, 
the  island  is  the  grave,  and  the  gardens  in  the  distance 
depict  the  future  state  of  happiness  which  comes  as  the 
reward  of  the  pains  suffered  here.  The  pure  and  brilliant 
colouring  of  this  refined  and  elaborate  picture  makes  it 
noteworthy  as  a  piece  of  decoration ;  but  it  is  more  than 
that,  inasmuch  as  (in  itself  a  vehicle  of  thought)  it 
demands  and  rewards  the  thoughtful  consideration  of  the 

Of  the  work  of  Fairfax  Murray,  which  may  perhaps  be 
said  to  be  more  directly  inspired  by  Rossetti  than  that  of 
most  of  his  contemporaries,  far  too  little  has  been  seen 
of  late  years.  Madonna  Laura,  Pharamond  and  Azalais^ 
The  Wanderers,  The  Violin  Players,  A  Pastoral,  and 
others,  have  hung  in  the  Grosvenor  Galleries  in  succeed- 
ing years;  and  the  latter,  dating  from  1882,  is  a  most 
charming  piece  of  decoration,  representing  a  group  of 
noble  men  and  women  sitting  in  an  Italian  garden, 
listening  to  music  discoursed  by  some  of  their  number. 
This  is  in  every  way  a  beautiful  work,  the  purity  and 
depth  of  the  exquisite  colour,  especially  in  the  blue  robes 











J.  M.  STRUDWICK  109 

of  some  of  the  figures,  is  masterly ;  and  the  whole  picture 
exhibits  artistic  powers  of  the  very  highest  rank.  The 
painter  is  by  no  means  an  imitator,  but  an  artist  of  great 
i original  power ;  and  since  poetic  inspiration  and  accom- 
jplished  presentation,  such  as  mark  his  work,  can  ill  be 
spared,  it  is  justly  a  matter  of  great  regret  to  his  sympa- 
thisers that  artistic  pursuits  of  another  kind  should  have 
precluded  Fairfax  Murray  from  practising  his  craft  to 
the  full. 

It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  a  man  who  has  acted 
I  as  assistant  first  to  Spencer  Stanhope  and  then  to  Burne- 
Jones  should  be  saturated  with  the  atmosphere  that 
imbued  those  artists,  especially  when  his  mind  is  one 
which  revels  in  quaint  and  beautiful  decorative  fancies, 
in  sweet  and  poetic  symbolism.  The  artistic  career  of 
J.  M.  Strudwick  is  a  curious  one.  Born  in  1849,  his 
student  days  commenced  with  a  course  of  South  Ken- 
sington, and  though  the  requirements  of  the  department, 
and  the  mould  into  which  budding  artists  must  perforce 
be  pressed,  were  far  from  congenial,  he  stayed  his  time, 
and  then  passed  into  the  Academy  Schools.  Here  all 
his  endeavours  after  rewards  and  distinctions  were  quite 
unsuccessful,  and  the  only  encouragement  he  received 
was  from  the  late  John  Pettie,  R.A.,  which  resulted  in 
an  entirely  futile  endeavour  to  acquire  the  bold  colour 
and  free  brushwork  that  marked  the  work  of  the  Scotch 
painter.  That  such  an  attempt  should  have  been  made 
seems  ludicrous,  when  one  stops  to  consider  what  the 
characteristics  of  Strudwick's  own  mature  style  are.  His 
student  days  may  be  said  to  have  been  a  failure;  but 
success  came  when  he  found  his  master  in  the  person  of 
Edward  Burne-Jones.  This  short  pupilage  showed  him 
the  direction  in  which  his  power  could  best  be  exercised, 
?and  from  the  day  when  he  thus  found  his  mttier  he  has 
never  looked  back. 


His  pictures  speak  for  themselves,  and  it  is  easy  to  see 
that  with  Strudwick,  as  with  Rossetti,  the  endeavour  to 
embody  beautifully  a  beautiful  conception  stands  first  and 
foremost.  Inspired,  now  to  pay  a  painter's  homage  to 
music,  now  to  depict  some  poetic  theme  from  the  regions 
of  romance,  he  has  painted  such  pictures  as  St  Cecilia, 
Golden  Strings,  and  Elaine ;  and  in  every  case  he  has 
adorned  his  pictures  with  such  wealth  of  charming  detail, 
such  glow  of  colour,  and  such  delicacy  of  handling,  that 
they  haunt  the  memory  even  as  other  sweet  visions  do. 
The  Ramparts  of  God's  House  may  be  taken  as  an  example 
of  his  more  elaborate  compositions.  In  this  "a  man 
stands  on  the  threshold  of  heaven,  with  his  earthly  shackles 
newly  broken,  lying  where  they  have  just  dropped,  at  his 
feet.  The  subject  of  the  picture  is  not  the  incident  of  the 
man's  arrival,  but  the  emotion  with  which  he  finds  himself 
in  that  place,  and  with  which  he  is  welcomed  by  the 
angels.  The  foremost  of  the  two  stepping  out  from 
the  gate  to  meet  him  is  indeed  angelic  in  her  ineffable 
tenderness  and  loveliness ;  the  expression  of  this  group, 
heightened  by  its  relation  to  the  man,  is  so  vivid,  so 
intense,  so  beautiful,  that  one  wonders  how  this  sordid 
nineteenth  century  of  ours  could  have  such  dreams,  and 
realise  them  in  its  art.  Transcendent  expressiveness  is 
the  moving  quality  in  all  Strudwick's  works  ;  and  persons 
who  are  fully  sensitive  to  it  will  take  almost  as  a  matter 
of  course  the  charm  of  the  architecture,  the  bits  of  land- 
scape, the  elaborately  beautiful  foliage,  the  ornamental 
accessories  of  all  sorts,  which  would  distinguish  them  even 
in  a  gallery  of  early  Italian  paintings." 

It  will  be  evident  from  the  above  quotation  from  Mr 
Bernard  Shaw  that,  Pre-Raphaelite  in  his  desire  "to  paint 
the  best  possible  pictures  in  the  best  possible  way,"  he 
spares  no  labour  of  invention  or  of  craftsmanship  that  may 
make  his  works  as  perfect  as  he  desires.  He  would 

{t  The  gentle  music  of  a  byegone  day" 



J.  M.  STRUDWICK— T.  M.  ROOKE         in 

almost  seem  to  possess  the  soul  of  a  mediaeval  illuminator 
working  with  the  hands  of  a  thoroughly  accomplished 
artist  of  to-day.  Whether  the  inspiration  is  religious  or 
chivalric,  there  is  an  air  of  aloofness  from  mundane 
matters,  of  cloistered  meditation,  about  all  that  he  accom- 
plishes that  is  not  of  this  epoch — that  carries  the  mind 
Dack  to  some  artist-monk  at  work  in  the  sequestered 
jcriptorium  ;  and  even  when  a  subject  from  classic  myth, 
uch  as  Marsyas  and  Apollo,  attracts  the  artist,  the  render- 
ng  is  such  as  one  might  expect  from  an  Italian  of  the 
mattro-cento.  Delicate,  dainty,  and  fervent,  obviously 
he  creations  of  a  poet,  the  pictures  of  Strudwick  are 
distinguished  by  an  execution  as  complete  and  detailed 
as  the  conception ;  and  yet,  despite  all  the  charming 
elaboration  that  marks  them,  there  is  an  air  of  simplicity 
pervading  all  his  works  that  is  as  noteworthy  as  the 
passion  for  beauty  that  he  everywhere  evinces.  Beautiful 
n  conception,  beautiful  in  colour,  and  charmingly  de- 
corative, these  pictures  are  evidently  the  achievement  of  a 
man  with  a  high  and  a  very  definite  ideal.  That  ideal  he 
expresses  to  perfection,  and  what  more  may  be  asked  of 
in  artist  ? 

Another  painter  who  at  one  time  worked  as  an  assistant 
:o  Burne-Jones  is  T.  M.  Rooke,  who  is  perhaps  best 
cnown  by  the  fashion  he  adopted  of  painting  several 
compositions  depicting  successive  scenes  of  the  same 
>tory,  which  were  designed  to  be  placed  in  one  frame. 
The  Story  of  Ahab,  The  Story  of  Ruth,  and  The 
Nativity  were  pictures  of  this  class,  and  each  was  marked 
a  wealth  of  invention  and  a  feeling  for  colour  that  was 
loteworthy.  Such  pictures  as  these,  and  the  companion 
impositions  of  Daphne  and  Clytie,  Morning  and 
^Evening,  as  well  as  The  Triumph  of  Saul  and  David, 
'(The  Thistledown  Gatherer,  and  the  later  work,  The  Man 
'Born  to  be  a  King,  are  typical  of  the  artist's  style.  They 


are  full  of  convention  and  of  personal  idiosyncrasies,  that 
can  in  no  wise  be  deemed  faults,  and  at  the  same  time 
they  are  replete  with  thought  and  invention,  and  with 
grace  of  colour  and  of  line.  Hardly  a  great  artist,  Rooke 
is  at  any  rate  a  sincere  one,  and  all  through  his  work  it  is 
apparent  that  the  painter  deems  that  every  scrap  of  space 
in  a  picture  is  precious,  and  to  be  wrought  as  exquisitely 
as  may  be.  These  little  canvases  are  as  vivid  as  the 
pictures  of  Holman  Hunt,  though  not  so  actual,  by 
reason  of  the  decorative  sense  present  throughout ;  and 
they  are  the  work  of  a  very  genuine  artist,  who  is 
obviously  possessed  of  the  first  artistic  requisite,  a  keen 
sense  of  the  beautiful. 

The  names  of  two  ladies,  who  have  also  carried  on  the 
Rossetti-Burne-Jones  tradition,  must  bring  this  chapter  to 
a  close,  Mrs  Stillman  (Miss  .Marie  Spartali)  and  Mrs  de 
Morgan  (Miss  Evelyn  Pickering).  The  former  accom- 
plished lady  early  fell  under  the  personal  influence  of 
Rossetti,  and  it  is  not  a  matter  for  surprise  that  her  worl 
such  as  the  beautiful  Persefone  Umbra,  or  Love's  Messen- 
ger, betrays  his  inspiration.  In  the  case  of  Mrs  d< 
Morgan,  the  more  elaborate  compositions  that  she  hj 
painted  show  rather  that  Burne-Jones  and  Spencei 
Stanhope  have  been  her  models ;  and  Love's  Parting, 
The  Gray  Sisters,  that  fine  work,  By  the  Waters  oj 
Babylon,  and  The  Dawn,  are  pictures  from  her  easel 
distinguished  by  rich  and  brilliant  colouring,  great  decora- 
tive charm,  and  sincere  poetic  inspiration,  qualities  that 
mark  this  artist  as  not  the  least  of  the  disciples  who  ha\ 
worthily  worked  on  the  lines  first  attempted  by  Danl 





1HE  ripples  of  the  agitation  started  by  the  formation 
of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood  are  still  sweeping 
on,  and  widening  as  they  go.  It  may  be  that  the  main 
work  that  the  initiators  set  themselves  to  do  has  been 
accomplished,  and  accordingly  the  movement  is  more 
diffuse  and  less  marked  than  in  its  early  and  more 
vehement  days  ;  but  the  two  phases,  the  genuine  Pre- 
Raphaelite  inspiration,  and  what  has  here  been  termed 
for  convenience  the  Rossetti  tradition,  are  still  potently 
existent.  The  inception  and  rise  of  yet  another  branch 
of  the  art  movement,  of  what  may  be  termed  the 
decorative  school,  can  also  undoubtedly  be  traced  to 
the  influence  of  the  members  of  the  Brotherhood  and 
their  associates.  Such  work  as  that  of  C.  M.  Gere,  J.  E. 
Southall,  L.  Fairfax  Muckley,  Arthur  Gaskin,  H.  Payne, 
and  the  other  artists  of  the  Birmingham  group,  is 
evidently  the  outcome  of  Pre-Raphaelism  ;  and  equally 
the  moving  spirit  of  such  decorative  artists  as  Charles 
Ricketts,  C.  H.  Shannon,  J.  D.  Batten,  Henry  Holiday, 
Heywood  Sumner,  the  brothers  Rhead,  and  the  various 
supporters  of  the  Arts  and  Crafts  Association,  may  be 
traced  to  the  same  source. 

More  frankly  inspired  by  Rossetti  and  Burne-Jones  are 
such  pictures  of  individual  merit  and  poetic  charm  as  have 
been  painted  by  Gerald  Moira,  The  Kings  Daughter,  and 
Willow-wood-,  Archie  M'Gregor,  The  Spirit  of  Life,  and 
The  Mirrors  of  Time  ;  Graham  Robertson,  The  Queen  of 


Samothrace,  and  My  Lady  Greensleeves ;  Henry  Ryland, 
Summer  Thoughts,  and  others ;  Cayley  Robinson,  The 
Beautiful  Castle,  and  The  Close  of  the  Day ;  Byam  Shaw, 
Whither,  Love's  Baubles,  and  others.  Curiously  enough, 
Madox  Brown,  probably  the  most  individual  artist  of  the 
original  group,  has  founded  no  school,  but  his  pupil, 
Harold  Rathbone,  naturally  shows  his  influence ;  and  it 
has  been  said  that  the  work  of  Edwin  Abbey,  R.A.,  is  to 
some  extent  reminiscent  of  the  achievement  of  the  dead 
artist.  Other  painters  that  must  also  be  classed  as  Pre- 
Raphaelite  are,  E.  R.  Frampton,  H.  J.  Ford,  and  E.  A. 
Fellowes  Prynne ;  and  such  work  of  T.  C.  Gotch's  as  The 
Child  Enthroned,  Alleluia,  and  other  pictures  in  a  similar 
style,  almost  seem  to  fall  into  the  same  category. 

Noteworthy  work  is  at  present  being  done  on  the  most 
rigid  Pre-Raphaelite  principles  by  Miss  Eleanor  Brickdale, 
who,  in  such  pictures  as  The  Deceitfulness  of  Riches, 
achieves  a  notable  success  in  a  most  ambitious  style.  This 
painter  should  do  much  in  the  future  to  exemplify  the 
still  living  force  of  Pre-Raphaelism  as  a  school.  Another 
lady,  Miss  Katherine  Cameron,  should  also  be  mentioned 
in  this  connection  ;  the  purity  and  brilliance  of  her  colour 
would  almost  seem  to  mark  her  out  as  artistically  the 
descendant  of  Rossetti,  while  the  delicacy  of  her  fancy 
and  the  poetic  quality  of  her  inspiration  are  equally 
noteworthy.  The  influence  of  the  Pre-Raphaelites  is  also 
surely  to  be  seen  in  the  pictures  of  J.  Young  Hunter,  whose 
My  Lady's  Garden  is  not  the  least  noteworthy  of  the 
recent  purchases  under  the  Chantrey  Bequest,  and  whose 
later  work  shows  no  falling  off  from  this  achievement ; 
while  Wolfram  Onslow  Ford  in  the  portrait  of  his  father — 
and  in  other  pictures — seems  almost  to  have  gone  back 
to  the  primitives  themselves  for  his  inspiration.  And  even 
while  this  edition  was  passing  through  the  press,  the 
Royal  Academy  Exhibition  exemplified  once  more  the 



' '  And  he  set  him  on  his  own 
beast  and  brought  him  to  an  inn 







Dersistence  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  tradition  and  influence 
n  the  work  of  Dennis  Eden,  Sidney  H.  Meteyard,  and 
Campbell  L.  Smith.  The  work  of  these  young  artists  is 
"ull  of  charm  and  has  much  individuality,  both  of  outlook 
md  presentment ;  of  course  it  is  impossible  to  say 
vhether  this  present  Pre-Raphaelism  is  but  a  phase  or 
vhether  it  is  the  promise  of  continued  good  work  along 
:hese  same  lines.  However  this  may  be,  it  is  pleasant  to 
>ee  that,  not  only  did  the  work  of  the  great  men,  painted 
ifty  years  ago,  influence  their  contemporaries,  but  that  it 
ilso  has  a  distinct  following  of  disciples  to-day. 

All  these  names  are  but  a  random  selection ;  every  visitor 
:o  the  exhibitions  of  to-day  will  mentally  add  to  this  brief 
ist ;  perhaps  it  will  be  better,  instead  of  lengthening  it,  to 
ievote  the  following  paragraphs  to  a  note  on  the  work  of 
:wo  of  these  artists  who  may  be  taken  as  typical  of  the 
^resent  development  of  Pre-Raphaelism — Cayley  Robinson 
md  Byam  Shaw. 

The  artistic  career  of  the  latter,  although  as  yet  brief, 
s  very  interesting  from  the  fact  that  his  love  of  Rossetti's 
ichievements,  both  poetic  and  artistic,  seems  to  have 
:arried  him  up  the  stream  of  that  painter's  style,  to  the 
earliest  Pre-Raphaelite  days.  That  is  to  say,  that  such 
vork  as  Circle-wise  sit  they.  Silent  Noon,  and  Rose  Marie, 
llustrations  of  Rossetti's  poems,  are  also  reminiscent  of 
:he  poet-painter's  later  pictorial  method  ;  while  the  later 
Drilliant  Love's  Baubles,  and  the  still  later  Boer  War, 
rpoo,  are  much  more  searchingly  and  carefully  painted- 
ire,  in  fact,  in  the  strictest  sense  Pre-Raphaelite.  In  all 
:hese  works,  and  in  the  cabinet  pictures  he  has  recently 
devoted  himself  to,  the  artist  shows  an  intense  desire  to 
express  his  theme  clearly,  with  a  distinct  preference  for 
subjects  of  a  high  poetic  order ;  and  he  displays  a 
technical  accomplishment  and  a  daring  in  the  use  of  pure 
:olour  (in  Whither,  and  The  Queen  of  Hearts,  for 


instance),  that  are  remarkable  in  the  work  of  so  young  a 
painter.  The  reproductions  of  his  work  in  this  volume 
speak  for  themselves;  his  Academy  picture  of  1897  at 
present  marks  the  highwater  mark  of  his  accomplishment. 
Love's  Baubles  represents  a  band  of  radiant  maidens  who 
pursue  across  a  flower  be-spangled  lawn  the  winged 
figure  of  Love,  striving  to  obtain  from  him  the  fruit  he 
bears  in  a  golden  dish.  The  elastic  movement  of  the 
laughing  boy,  winged  and  aureoled  by  butterflies,  is 
admirably  rendered  ;  the  painting  of  the  whole  is  close 
and  masterly,  though  in  no  way  niggled,  and  reminiscent 
in  its  purity  and  brilliance  of  the  work  of  Millais,  when 
that  artist  painted  Mariana,  and  The  Blind  Girl;  and 
the  symbolism  is  not  so  complex  as  to  be  cryptic.  It  is 
pleasant  to  see  the  artist's  disposition  to  depict  joyous 
circumstances,  the  gladness  of  youth,  and  the  sweetness 
of  smiling  faces  ;  to  note  his  inclination  to  exalt  our  Lady 
of  Happiness  above  our  Lady  of  Pain  (as  has  been  well 
said) ;  and  to  observe  that  there  is  a  reaction  against  the 
sadness,  not  to  say  morbidity,  that  one  has  been  apt  to 
associate  with  much  of  the  elder  Pre-Raphaelite  art. 
When  the  promise  in  a  young  artist's  work  is  so  great, 
one  is  justified  in  hoping — nay  more,  in  expecting — that 
he  may  be  able  to  attain  in  the  future  a  very  exalted 
position  in  the  annals  of  English  art. 

Far  other  is  the  work  of  Cayley  Robinson.  Robustness 
of  thought  and  execution,  and  a  riot  of  colour  are  not  for 
him,  rather  is  he  a  dreamer  of  dreams,  and  a  dweller  in 
the  twilit  land  of  old  romance.  The  atmosphere  of 
medievalism  so  apparent  in  A  Souvenir  of  a  Past  Age, 
The  Beautiful  Castle,  and  The  Close  of  the  Day,  would 
seem  his  native  air,  so  well  he  imbues  with  it  these 
pictures  painted  in  an  alien  century.  To  an  unusual 
extent  his  work  is  thoughtful  and  imaginative  ;  highly 
original  in  his  ideas,  he  has  consistently  worked  along  the 



-  I 
3  I 

2   I 

:  J 



THE    BOER    WAR,     1900 

Last  summer  green  things  were  greener •, 
brambles  fewer •,  the  blue  sky  bluer" 




lines  he  decided  were  those  he  meant  to  follow  ;  and  into 
each  of  his  pictures,  full  of  delicate  charm,  the  spectator 
will  read  just  so  much  of  poetry  and  romance  as  his  own 
soul  is  gifted  with.  A  curious  formality  which  undoubtedly 
makes  for  decorative  beauty  is  apparent  in  his  art,  and  all 
his  pictures  bear  evidence  of  ungrudging  expenditure  of 
thought  and  patient  labour ;  features  that  his  work  has  in 
common  with  that  of  Burne-Jones,  from  whom  he  has 
undoubtedly  learnt  much.  But  no  one  standing  before 
one  of  Cayley  Robinson's  pictures  would  take  it  for  the 
work  of  the  elder  artist ;  he  has  not  only  preserved  his 
individuality,  he  has  shown  us  that  there  are  still  un- 
exhausted possibilities  in  art.  Popular  his  work  will 
never  be,  but  those  to  whom  it  appeals  recognise  that  it 
is  the  accomplishment  of  a  painter  of  great  power  and 
marked  charm,  from  whom  still  finer  things  may  con- 
fidently be  anticipated. 

Whether  any  of  the  painters  whose  names  are 
mentioned  in  this  chapter  are  destined,  in  carrying  on 
the  work  of  Pre-Raphaelism,  to  produce  work  of  the 
highest  artistic  rank,  as  was  done  in  the  last  generation 
by  the  founders  of  the  movement ;  or  whether  the 
splendour  of  the  pictures  painted  in  the  past  is  to  remain 
the  unapproached  high-water  mark  of  the  school,  it  were 
vain  to  speculate.  That  there  are  artists  among  the 
younger  painters  whose  promise  justifies  us  in  hoping 
very  great  things  of  them  is,  one  is  glad  to  say,  evident ; 
and  there  is  reason  to  trust  that  the  coming  men  may  do 
as  fine  work  as  their  forerunners.  The  principles  of 
Pre-Raphaelism  remain  as  essentially  true  as  when  first 
promulgated,  and  work  equally  good  ought  to  be  the 
result  of  an  honest  acceptance  of  them  ;  but  perhaps  it  is 
too  much  to  hope  to  find  among  their  exponents  such  a 
galaxy  of  genius  as  the  original  founders  and  followers  of 
the  Brotherhood. 


PORTRAIT    OF    E.    ONSLOW    FORD,    R.A. 




Titles  of  pictures  are  printed  in  italics 

ABBEY,  Edwin,  R.A.,  114 

Afterglow,  The,  28 

Alas  tor,  67 

Alleluia,  114 

Amaryllis,  29,  30 

Amor  Mundi,  59 

Amor  Sacramentum,  64 

Angel  of  Death,  78 

Annunciation,  The  (Burne-Jones),  I O2, 


Annunciation,  The  (Storey),  87 
April  Love,  70 
Arab  Scribe,  The,  91 
Archer,  James,  89 
Arnold,  Mattheiv,  Portrait  of,  62 
Ana,  67 
Astarte,  51 

At  Tou  Like  It,  Scene  from,  54 
Autumn  Leaves,  32,  34,  35 
A'wakened  Conscience,  The,  28 

Backgammon  Players,  The,  IO2 

Barthram's  Dirge,  73 

Batten,  J.  D.,  113 

Battersea,  Lord,  Portrait  of,  62 

Beata  Beatrix,  45,  57 

Beautiful  Castle,  The,  114,  116 

Beguiling  of  Merlin,  The,  IOI,  103 

Belcolore,  45 

Beloved,  The,  45,  46,  47,  48,  51 

Bianco  Capello,  88 

Blind  Girl,  34,  89,   116 

-S/w  C/wrf,  The,  42 

Bluidie  Tryst e,  The,  73 

Bodley,  Mr.  G.  F.,  A.R.A.,  108 

Boer  War,  1900,  The,  115 

Brancacci  Chapel,  Frescoes  at,  4 

Brett,  John,  86,  87 

Briar  Rose  Series,  The,  101 

Brickdale,  Eleanor  F.,  114 

Bride,  The,  45,  48,  5: 

Bridge  of  Life,  The,  96 

Broken  Voivs,  88 

Brown,    Ford    Madox,     i    et    seq, 

Ruskin  and,  12  ;    17  et  seq.,  38 
Brown,  Oliver,  Madox,  23 
Bubbles,  88 
Burd  Helen,  79,  80 
Burial  of  the  Bride,  The,  87 
Burne-Jones,  Sir  E.,  8,  92,  99  et  seq, 

109-111,  112,  113,  117 
Burton,  W.  S.,  57,  75,  77  et  seq. 
By  the  Waters  of  Babylon,  1 12 

Calderon,  P.  H.,  R.A.,  88 
Cameron,  Hugh,  89 
Cameron,  Katherine,  114 
Carpenter's  Shop,  The,  33 
Cassandra,  6 1 

Chant  cT Amour,  Le,  102-103 
Chapel  before  the  Lists,  The,  42 
Chariots  of  the  Hours,  96 


Charity  B"y's  Debut,  The,  53 

Charon  and  Psyche,   108 

Chatterton,  86 

Chaucer  reading  the  Legend  of  Constance, 

Child  Enthroned,  The,  114 

Christ  among  the  Doctors,  26,  28 

Christ  and  Peter,  94 

Christ  in  the  House  of  his  Parents,  33 

Christ  -washing  Peter's  Feet,  17,  19 

Church,  Dean,  Portrait  of,  6^ 

Circle-ivise  Sit  they,  115 

Clara  i  on  Bork,  I  o  I 

Close  of  the  Day,  114,  H  6 

Clytie,  III 

Collins,  Charles  Allston,  75,  76 

Collinson,  James,  6,  10,  52,  53 

Colvin,  Sydney,  43 

Convalescent,  The,  90 

Convent  Thoughts,  76 

Converted   British    Family    sheltering    a 

^Missionary,  28 
Cordelia  and  Lear,  1 9 
Cordelia's  Portion,   19 
"  Cornhill  Magazine,"  81 
Corsair,  The,  21 
Cottage  Interior,  BorroivJale,  89 
Crane,  Walter,  94  et  seq. 
Cram-well  at  St.  Ives,  20 
Cupid  and  Psyche,  103 
Cupid's  Hunting-Ground,  104 

Dalton  collecting  Marsh  Gas,  2O 
Danae  in  the  Brazen  Chamber,  5 1 
Dante  dra-wing  the  Face  of  Beatrice,  I OO 
Dante  on  the  Anniversary  of  the  Death  of 

Beatrice,  42 
Dante's  Leah,  87 
Daphne,  III 

Daughter  of  the  Vine,  A,  96 
Davis,  H.  W.  B.,  R.A.,  88 
Davis,  William,  87 
Daivn  (Solomon),  64 
Daivn,  The  (E.  de  Morgan),  1 12 
Daivn  :   Luther  at  Erfurt,  72 
Days  of  Creation,  The,  163 

Death  of  Bede,  98 

Deceitf  tilness  of  Riches,  The,  114 

De  Morgan,  Evelyn,  112 

Depths  of  the  Sea,  The,  103 

Deverell,  Walter  Howell,  6,  53,  54 

Diana  and  the  Shepherd,  95 

Dies  Domini,  103 

Doctor's  Last  Visit,  The,  54 

Donna  del/a  Finestra,  15,  45,  57 

Door  nf  a  Cafe  in  Cairo,  9 1 

Doubtful  Coin,  The,  91 

Douglas,   Sir  W.    Fettes,  P.R.S.A., 


Doivie  Dens  ofTarro-w,  The,  73 
Duet,  The,  23 
Du  Maurier,  G.,  49 

Ecce  Ancilla  Domini,  15,  41 

Eden,  Dennis,  114 

Elaine,   no 

Endymion,  96 

Escape  of  a  Heretic,  The,  35,  37 

Eve,  1 08 

Evening,  HI  of  St.  Agnes,  70 

Eve  of  the  Deluge,  The,  97 

Execution  of  Mary  Queen  of  Scott,  "2. 

Expulsion  of  the  Danes,  ZO 

Fair  Rosamond,  45 

Fairy  Raid,  The,  73 

Faithful  unto  Death,  78 

Fazio's  Mistress,  42 

Feast  of  Peleus,  The,  103 

Ferdinand  and  Ariel,  33,  35 

Finding  of  the  Saviour  in  the  Temple,  Z% 

Flight  of  Henry  VI. ,  80 

Ford,  H.  J.,  114 

Ford,  W.  O.,  114 

Foscari,  21 

Found,  57 

Frampton,  E.  R.,  114 

Freedom,  96 

Garden  Seat,  The,  88 
Gaskin,  Arthur,  113 



Gere,  C.  M.,  113 

Girl  ivith  Flotvers,  76 

Girlhood  of  Mary  Virgin,  IO,  40 

Going  to  the  Hay,  89 

Golden  Stairs,  The,  103 

Golden  Strings,   no 

Good- Night,  70 

Good  Shepherd,  The,  94 

Gotch,  T.  C.,  114 

Gray,  J.  M.,  88,  89 

Gray  Sisters,  The,   III 

Greek  High  Priest,  65 

Green,  John  Richard,  Portrait  of,  62 

Green  Summer,  IO2 

Gregorius,  Professor,  18 

Guarded  Boiver,  The,  70 

Habet,  64 

Harald  Harfagr,  59 

Hareem,  The,  91 

Henderson,  Joseph,  89 

Hireling   Shepherd,  The,  ^6 ,  If,  87,  90 

Holbein,  A  Modern,  18 

Holiday,  Henry,  113 

Home,  70 

Home  from  Sea,  70 

Hueffer,  Mrs.,  23 

Hughes,  Arthur ,  15,  69  et  seq. ,  93 

Huguenot,  The,  33,  34,  35 

Hunt,  W.  Holman,  2  et  seq.,  32,  38, 

85,  87,  112 
Hunter,  J.  Young,  114 

//  Ramoscello,  45 

Inchbold,  J.  W.,  87 

In  M.emoriam,  72 

Isabella,  and  the  Pot  of  Basil,  30 

Jolt  Caur,  45 
Jonah,  94 

Katharina  and  Petruchio,  8* 
King  Cophetua  and  the  Beggar  Maid,  103 
King    Egfrid    offering    the    Bishopric    of 
Hexham  to  St.  Cuthbert,  98 

K*ng  of  Sorroivs,  The,  78 
King  Rene's  Honeymoon,  i<j 
King's  Daughter,  The,   113 
King's  Quhair,  The,  98 

La  Bella  Mano,  45,  51 

Lady  Lilith,  45 

Lady  ofShalott,  The,  30 

Lady  -with  a  Bird- Cage,  54 

Lambs  at  Play,  8 1 

Lancelot  and  Guinevere,  73 

Lancelot  and  Guinevere   at   the   Tomb    of 

Arthur,  42 

Last  Day  in  the  Old  Home,  82 
Last  of  England,  2O,  84 
Laus  Veneris,  103,  104 
Lawless,  Matthew  James,  75,  81 
Lawrence,  Samuel,  58 
Leslie,  G.  D.,  87 
Lesson,  The,  82 
Lewis,  J.  F.,  89,  90,  91 
Leiuis,  Mrs.,  Portrait  of,  6l 
Light  of  the  World,  The,  26,  28 
Lilium  Auratum,  91 
Linton,  Sir  J.  D.,  49 
Linton,  W.  S.,  96 
LonBjn  JMagdalen,  A,  78 
Lorenzo  at  the  House  of  Isabella,  9,  10, 


Lost  Child,  The,  70 
Love  among  the  Ruins,   IO2,  103 
Love  and  Time,  94 
Love  in  Autumn,  64 
Love's  Baubles,  114,  115,  Il6 
Love's  Parting,  112 
Lucrezia  Borgia,  42 

M'Gregor,  Archie,  113 

M'Taggart,  W.,  90 

M.ade>nna  Laura,   108 

Man  born  to  be  a  King,  The,  III 

Manchester     Toivn     Hall,    Frescoes    at. 


Man  of  Sorrows,  The,  74 
Manoli,  59 


Man  -with  the  Muck-Rake,  The,  74 

Mariana  (Rossetti),  45 

Mariana  in  the  Moated  Grange  (Millais), 

i4»  34>  37>  9°>  II6 

Maris,  Matthew,  49 

Marriage  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  29 

Marten  at  Chepsto-w  Castle,  86 

Martineau,  Robert,  75,  81,  8* 

Marsyas  and  Apollo,  \\Q 

Match-Seller,  The,  89 

May  Day  on  Magdalen  Tower ,  29 

Medea,  15,  60,  6 1 

Meeting  of  Dante  and  Beatrice  in  Purga- 
tory, 43 

Merciful  Knight,  The,  IO2 

Meteyard,  Sidney  H..  115 

Midsummer  Night's  Dream,  Scenes  from, 


Mill,  The,  102,  104 
Millais,  John  Everett,  2  et  seq,,  31  el 

seg.,  116 

Mirror  of  Venus,  The,  103 
Mirrors  of  Time,  The,  113 
Moira,  Gerald,  113 
Monna  Rosa,  45 
Monna  Vanna,  45 
Moore,  Henry,  86 
Morgan  le  Fay,  60,  6l 
Morning,  III 

Morris,  William,  76,  77,  100 
Mors  Janua  Vitae,  74 
Moses,  64 

Muckley,  L.  Fairfax,  113 
Murray,  Fairfax,  108,  109 
My  Lady  Greens  leeves,  113 
My  Lady's  Garden,  114 

Nativity,  The,  III 
Neptune' 's  Horses,  96 
Nightmare,  The,  59 

Old  Chartist.  The,  59 
"Once  a  Week,"  59,  81 
O'Neil,  H.,  8 1 
Ophelia  (Arthur  Hughes),  69 

Ophelia  (Millais),  32.  34,  71 

Order  of  Release,  The,  34,  37 

Ormuzd  and  Ariman,  96 

Our  Lady  of  Good  Children,  19 

Outlaw,  The,  80 

Owen.  Sir  Richard,  Portrait  of,  29 

Palmer,  Mrs  Jean,  Portrait  of,  6z 

Pan  and  Psyche,   103 

Pandora,  96 

Paola  and  Francesca,  42 

Parisina's  Sleep,  2,   1 8 

Passover  in  the  Holy  Family,  42 

Pastoral,   A,    108 

Patience  on  a  Monument,   108 

Patmore,  Coventry,  12 

Paton,  Sir  Noel,  71  etseq.,  89,  93 

Paton,  Waller,  87 

Payne  H.,  113 

Pedlar,  The,  76 

Penelope,  6 1 

Persefone  Umbra,  or  Love's   Messenger, 


Perseus  and  the  Graiae,  103 
Pettie,  John,  109 
Pharamond  and  Azalais,  108 
Plains  of  Esdraelon,  The,  28 
Pretty  Baa  Lambs,   19 
Priest  of  an  Eastern  Church,  65 
Prinsep,  Val,  87,  88 
Proscribed  Royalist,    The,    14,    34,    37, 


Proserpina,  45,  47 
Proud  Maiiie,  6 1 
Prynne.  E.  A.  Fellowes,  114 
Pygmalion  Series,  The,  IO1 

Queen  Guenevere,  77 
Queen  of  Hearts,  115 
Queen  of  Samothrace ,  The,  113 

Rainbow  and  the  Wave,  The,  96 
Ramparts  of  God's  House,  The,  IIO 
Rathbone,  Harold,  114 
Red  Cross  Knight  in  Search  of  Una,  96 



Renascence  of  f^'enits,  96 

Renunciation    of   Elizabeth    of   Hungary, 


Rescue,  The,  34 

Retro  Me  Sathana,  40 

Return  from  Marston  Moor,  86 

Return    of  the    Dove   to    the    Ark,    The, 


Rhead,  The  Brothers,  113 
Richmond,  George,  58 
Ricketts,  Charles,  115 
Rienzi    swearing     Vengeance     over     his 

Brother's  Corpse,  IO,  17 
Robertson,  Graham,  113 
Robinson,  Cayley,  114,  115,  116, 


Roll  of  Fate,  96 

Romans  Building  Mancunium,  The,  2O 
Romeo  and  Juliet  (Madox  Brown),  2O, 


Romeo  and  Juliet  (Mrs.  Rossetti),  23 
Rooke,  T.  M.,  in,  112 
Rosamund,  Queen  of  the  Lombards,  £9 
Rose  Marie,  115 

Rose,  Mrs.  Anderson,  Portrait  of,  62 
Rossetti,    Dante    Gabriel,    i  et  seq., 

*3,  *6,  38,  39  t  "I-,  53,  57,  59, 

100,  106,  113,  114 
Rossetti,  Mrs.  W.  M.,  23 
Rossetti,  William  Michael,  7,  8,  9, 

5*,  55 

Ruby  Ring,  The,  89 

Ruskin,  John,   n,   12,    13,   27,   30, 

32,  52,  70,  80,  86 
Ryland  Henry,  114 

St.  Cecilia,  IIO 

Sandys,  Frederick,  14,  57,  58  et  seq. 

Satan  watching  the  Sleep  of  Christ,  74 

Scapegoat,  The,  28,  78 

Scott,  William  Bell,  97 

Seddon,  Thomas,  87 

Shadow  of  Death,  The,  28 

Shadow  of  the  Cross,  The,  26 

Shannon,  C.  H.,  113 

Shaw,  Bernard,  no 

Shaw,  Byam,  114,  115 

Shee,  Sir  M.  A.,  31 

Shields,  Frederic,  93,  94 

Ship,  The,  29 

Shulamite,  The,  118 

Sick  Call,  The,  8 1 

Siddall,  Miss,  53 

Sidonia  von  Bork,   IOI 

Silent  Noon,  115 

Silver  and  Gold,  70,  72 

Sirens,  The,  95 

Sir  Galahaa,  42 

Sir  Isumbras  at  the  Ford,  15,  33,  jj, 

37,  95 

Smith,  Campbell  L.,  115 
Solomon  Eagle,  94 
Solomon,  Simeon,  57,  63  et  seq. 
Song  of  the  Past,  87 
Southall,  J.  E.  113 
Souvenir  of  a  Past  Age,  1 1 6 
Spell,  The,  89 
Spirit  of  Life,  The,  113 
Springtide,  JO 
Stanhope,  Spencer,   107,   108,  109, 


Steer,  Mr.  Wilson,  49 

Stephens,   Frederick  George,   6,  46, 


Stillman,  Marie,  112 
Stonebreaker,  The,  15,  86 
Storey,  G.  A.,  87 
Storm,  The,  90 
Story  of  Ahab,  in 
Story  of  Ruth,  III 
Strayed  Sheep,  The,  28,  8 1 
Street  Scene  in  Cairo,  91 
Strudwick,  J.  M.,  85,  109  et  seq. 
Summer,  95 
Summer  Thoughts,  114 
Sumner,  Hey  wood,  113 
Surgeon's  Daughter,  The,  79 

Tapestry  Worker,  The,  89 
Tt  Deum  Laudamus,  93 
Ttnnyson,  Lord,  Portrait  of,  6l 
Thistledown  Gatherer,  III 


Thorn  in  the  Foot,  90 
Tissot,  James,  90 
Too  Late,  79,  80 
Transit  of  Venus,  2O 
Triumph  of  Faith,  The,  93 
Triumph  of  Saul  and  David,   1  1  1 
Triumph  <f  the  Innocents,  28 
Triumph  of  Will,  The,  90 
Tune  of  Seven  Towers,  The,  42 
Turkish  School,  The,  91 
Twelfth  Night,  Scene  from,  .53 
Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona,  1  6,  1 

Vade  Satana,  74 
Val  d'Aosta,  87 
Vale  of  Rest,  The,  36 
Valkyrie,  59 

Van  Hanselaer  at  Ghent  ,  1  8 
r<f»w.r  Verticordia,  45 
Veronica  Veronese,  45 
Vigilate  et  Orate,  73 


Virgin  Mary,  IO 
ffvfoi,  60,  6l 

Waiting  for  the  Verdict,  63 
Wappers,  Baron,  18 

Wallis,  Henry,  86 

Wanderers,  The,  1  08 

JFafcrj  of  Lethe,  The,   108 

Watson,  J.  D.,  88 

Watts,  G.  P.,  107 

Webbe,  W.  J.,  81 

Wedding  of  St.  George,  The,  4* 

Westminster  Hall,  Cartoons  at,  1 

Wheel  of  Fortune,   IOZ 

When  the  Boats  Come  In,  90 

Whispering    Tongues  can    poison    Truth, 


Whistler,  J.  M'Neil,  49 
Whither,  114,  115 
Widow's  Son,  The,  Zl 
William  TeWs  Son,  78 
Willow-wood,   113 
Wilson,  George,  57,  65  rf  «y. 
JPi'/j*  of  Circe,  IO2 
Hindus,  W.  L.,  57,  75,  79,  80 
Wontner,  William,  49 
Woodman's  Daughter,  12,  34 
Woolner,  Thomas,  6,  7,  10,  51 
Work,  19,  21 
World's  Gratitude,  The,  79 
Wounded  Cavalier,  The,  77,  78 

,  80 



INDINGSECT.     MAY  2  11981 





Bate,  Percy  H. 

The  English  pre-Raphaelite 
painters,  their  associates 
and  successors